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Response to Intervention: A Framework for Educational Reform

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1 Response to Intervention: A Framework for Educational Reform
What does it mean for gifted education? NAGC Tampa, Florida November 2, 2008 Daphne Pereles Colorado Department of Education Lois Baldwin Westchester County, NY Response to Intervention: A Framework for Educational Reform What does this mean for gifted education?

2 Structure for Discussion
RtI as an overall systemic change Definition Components Framework Infusing gifted language and consideration through each component An opportunity not to be missed Identifying resources Next Steps How will you use this information to include gifted in your RtI plans?

Not to determine whether a student qualifies for special education, but rather to enhance the success of students with a variety of academic and behavioral needs.

4 Core Principles We believe that…
ALL children can learn and achieve high standards as a result of effective teaching. All students must have access to a rigorous, standards-based curriculum and research-based instruction. Intervening at the earliest indication of need is necessary for student success (Pre K-12). A comprehensive system of tiered interventions is essential for addressing the full range of student needs.

5 Core Principles Student results are improved when ongoing academic and behavioral performance data are used to inform instructional decisions. Collaboration among educators, families and community members is the foundation to effective problem-solving and instructional decision-making. Ongoing and meaningful involvement of families increases student success. All members of the school community must continue to gain knowledge and develop expertise in order to build capacity and sustainability. Effective leadership at all levels is crucial for the implementation of RtI.

6 The overarching purpose of RtI implementation
is to improve educational outcomes for all RtI Defined (Colorado Dept. of Education) Response to Intervention is an approach that promotes a well- integrated system connecting general, compensatory, gifted, and special education in providing high quality, standards-based instruction & intervention that is matched to students’ academic, social- emotional, and behavioral needs. A continuum of evidence-based, tiered interventions with increasing levels of intensity and duration is central to RtI. Collaborative educational decisions are based on data derived from frequent monitoring of student performance and rate of learning. students.

7 How it fits General discussion about RtI/multitiered model insert Colorado’s as an example

8 Traditional vs. Problem-Solving
Focus on problems within child Focus on outcomes Causes presumed to be largely due to internal variables Causes presumed to be largely due to external variables Unexpected underachievement (relative to ability) Unexpected underachievement (relative to good instruction) IQ-Achievement discrepancy Failure to respond to empirically validated instruction or interventions Assumes better classification leads to better treatment Decisions about students based on progress monitoring data As we began implementation of such a model, it was difficult to move from the old to the new. A framework that was helpful for discussion for all practioners was how are we doing business now (traditional) and what are we heading toward (problem solving)

9 Traditional vs. Problem Solving for GT
How are programming needs for gifted and advanced learners currently determined? What variables might be considered in a problem-solving model to determine programming needs?

10 Practitioners’ Guidebook
Six Components Understanding the Three-Tiered Model Key Definitions Role Expectations RtI after Implementation Special Considerations Glossary Resources

11 Colorado Practitioners’ Guide

12 Six Essential Components of RtI
Leadership Curriculum & Instruction Problem-Solving/Consultation Assessment/Progress Monitoring School Culture & Climate Family and Community Engagement

13 Leadership State District Building Training Guidelines
Professional development Resources Development of leadership roles Building Time Fidelity Support problem-solving process Develop action plan Refer to NASDE Blueprints for Implementation (again, what about gifted?); What leaders should be at the table to include the necessary gifted discussions at each level?

14 Curriculum Across the Tiers
Universal Tier Provide foundation of curriculum and school organization that has a high probability(80 – 90% of students responding) of bringing students to a high level of achievement in all areas of development/content Choose curricula that has evidence of producing optimal levels of achievement (evidence-based curriculum) Targeted Tier Supplemental curriculum aligned with Core Curriculum and designed to meet the specific needs of the targeted group Intensive Tier Focused curriculum designed to meet the specific needs of the targeted group and/or individual Consideration of replacement Core curriculum

15 Curriculum: Guiding Questions (District or School )
Is curriculum evidenced-based and sufficient? How document evidence and what constitutes evidence (both quantitative and qualitative)? Is the curriculum aligned to the standards? How will the Core curriculum identify needs and how will they be addressed? How will the effectiveness of the Core curriculum be monitored and adapted over time? For which children/students is the Core curriculum sufficient and not sufficient, and why? What specific supplemental and intensive curricula are needed (does the Core curriculum need to be changed)?

16 For which children/students is the Core curriculum sufficient and not sufficient, and why?
How would this be answered for students exhibiting possible gifted behaviors? This is a question that would be answered in a different way for “struggling learners” What guidance can be infused here to include thoughtful consideration to the inclusion of the needs of gifted learners? Here is our opportunity…

17 How might this question be answered for gifted learners?
What specific supplemental and intensive curricula are needed (does the Core curriculum need to be changed)? How might this question be answered for gifted learners? How might this inform programming options for gifted learners?

18 Instruction Across the Tiers
Universal Tier Instructional strategies that are proven effective by research Instruction that is systematic and explicit Differentiated instruction Targeted Involves homogeneous small group or individual instruction Explicit and systematic instruction targeting specific skill/content Research-based instruction to such student factors as age, giftedness, cultural environment, level of English language acquisition, mobility, etc. Supplemental to Tier I instruction -- increasing time and intensity Intensive Explicit, intense instruction designed to unique learner needs Delivered to individuals or very small groups Narrowed instructional focus and increased time For forth bullet point - for application of skills, re-teaching , additional practice and/or advanced level tasks as determined by benchmarks and progress monitoring data

19 Problem-Solving Process
Define the Problem Directly Measure Behavior/Skill Evaluate Response to Intervention Analyze Validate Problem Identify Contributing Variables Implement Develop Plan Implement Plan as Intended Progress Monitor Modify as Necessary Problem solving is the way the entire system functions. Many think it is a meeting but not all of this can occur within a meeting. Meetings are for the development of a plan. Data is gathered and problem identified prior to a meeting.

20 The Problem-Solving Process
Steps in the Process Roles of the Team 1. Define the Problem What is the problem? 2. Problem Analysis Why is this problem occurring? 3. Implement Plan What are we going to do about it? How will we monitor progress? 4. Evaluate Response to Intervention Did it work? Coordinator Consultant Recorder Timekeeper Parent Persons with Expertise in: Data Interventions - Academic/Behavioral Parent Partnerships Community Resources

21 Problem-Solving Team Comprised of teachers (classroom and special educators), specialists, and parents Partner with parents Plan prescriptive interventions for students Promote shared responsibility for student learning Collect and review data Evaluate responsiveness to intervention

22 Assessments in RtI Screening and Benchmark Universal measures that give a quick read on whether students have mastered critical skills. Diagnostic Individually administered to gain more in-depth information and guide appropriate instruction or intervention plans. Progress Monitoring Determines whether adequate progress is made based on individual goals regarding critical skills. Outcome Provides an evaluation of the effectiveness of instruction and indicate student year-end achievement when compared to grade-level performance standards.

23 Purposes of Assessment
Identify strengths and needs of individual students Inform problem-solving process Inform instruction and necessary adjustments Evaluate the effectiveness of instruction at different levels of system (e.g., classroom, school, district) Inform educational decisions Eligibility across programs

24 Outcomes of Progress Monitoring
Screening Goal: To identify students at academic or behavioral risk Benchmark Testing Goal: Evaluation of students at designated periods Strategic Monitoring Goal: Monitoring individual students using ongoing information about specific skills. Intensive Monitoring Goal: Based on an individualized plan, monitoring individual students using ongoing information about specific skills and interventions.

25 Outcomes of Progress Monitoring
Screening Identify types of screening tools currently used for gifted students Benchmark Testing How is benchmark testing currently being used for gifted students? Strategic Monitoring How might this type of skill development monitoring for gifted students be helpful? Intensive Monitoring What specifics would be needed to identify GT plan monitoring? How can this be used to measure effectiveness of individual programming?

26 Progress Monitoring in RtI
Intensive Monitoring Intensive interventions based on comprehensive evaluation. For students with most intensive needs that may be several grade levels behind or above. Monitoring occurs more often to ensure intervention is working (e.g., every 1-2 weeks). Approximately 1-5% of students. Strategic Monitoring Targeted interventions based on data that students’ need for more For students who are struggling with specific skills Monitoring occurs more than at the universal level to ensure intervention is working (e.g., every 4-6 weeks). AApproximately 5-10% of students. Universal Level Research-based, high quality general education. Screening and benchmark testing for ALL students. Data continues to inform instruction, but less frequently (e.g., 3 times a year). Enough monitoring for 80-90% of students.

27 Positive School Climate: Essential Elements
A caring school community Instruction in appropriate behavior and social problem-solving skills Positive Behavior Support (PBS) Effective academic instruction

28 Positive School Climate: Essential Practices
Defining and consistently teaching expectations of behavior for students, parents and educators Acknowledging and recognizing students and adults consistently for appropriate behaviors Monitoring, correcting or re-teaching behavioral errors

29 Positive School Climate: Essential Practices
Engaging teachers in a collaborative team problem-solving process that uses data to guide instruction Including families in a culturally-sensitive, solution-focused approach to supporting student learning

30 Family & Community Engagement
Effective partnerships include: Parents Families Students Community members Educators Indicators of effective partnerships: Sharing information Problem-solving Celebrating student successes Central to effective partnerships is the recognition of shared responsibility and ownership of student challenges and successes.

31 Key Roles/Expectations for Families
Collaborate with teachers regarding identified need Share information about child and family as appropriate Support student learning at home Attend Problem-solving team meeting Partner in intervention planning and progress monitoring



Core Instruction Assessment/Progress Monitoring Data discussions What should the overall process look like during Tier I?

35 Core Instruction During Tier I
Scientifically based core instructional programs and practices Based on state/district standards and benchmarks Intervention occurs within the general design of the classroom (flooding, flexible grouping) Instructional changes are made based on classroom and school-wide assessment

36 Data Discussions in Tier I
Professional Learning Communities Data-dialogue meetings Grade or Content-level meetings Meeting should be efficient, organized and scheduled regularly Discuss Whole group, flexible group changes, class changes at secondary Curricular gaps based on review of class benchmarks or other data

37 Assessment in Tier I Progress monitoring is conducted primarily using school-wide screenings three times per year Classroom assessments Benchmarks Quarterly and Unit Assessments

38 The Overall Process of Tier I
Teachers evaluate school-wide assessment data to inform instructional placement decisions Monitor all students Differentiate instruction, groupings, accommodations Complete documentation for students needing targeted interventions

39 BEST PRACTICES of Tier II: and how to Distinguish from Tier I
Problem Solving Process Data dialogue Assessment/Progress Monitoring Design of Instruction/Intervention What should the overall process look like at this tier?

40 Data Dialogue in Tier II:
Consultation between consultant and teacher to define and analyze a measurable problem prior to problem-solving team meeting. Focus on data that is specific to problem identified. Problem-solving team meeting led with facilitator which is timed, sequential and efficient.

41 Assessment in Tier II: Progress is monitored more often (weekly, bi-monthly) Progress is monitored repeatedly for a period of time using consistent CBM tool Trends in performance are used to gauge effectiveness of supports and interventions Ineffective intervention plans are changed in a timely manner Intervention plans are modified based on emerging needs

42 Gap Analysis A critical factor in determining whether a student is making sufficient progress in Tier I is conducting a Gap Analysis. Example: Benchmark vs. Current Level of Performance = Gap 90 wpm/40 wpm = 2.25 2+ = Significant Gap and signifies a need for Tier II or Tier III intervention to close the Gap between student and peers How might this be modified to show appropriate growth for gifted learners? Can this be modified for gifted learners? A gap from what?

43 Design of Instruction/Intervention in Tier II: How to distinguish from Tier I
Instruction supplements, not supplants core instruction Focus on non-responders to Tier I Short-term intervention Homogeneous, same ability small group (3-5 students) instruction

44 The Overall Process of Tier II
Goals: to gain critical academic or behavior skills so students can return to the core curriculum or to enhance academic or behavior instruction to maximize student learning Specific progress monitoring occurs to inform instruction Ongoing consultation occurs between case manager/consultant and teacher

Problem Solving Process Data dialogue Assessment/Progress Monitoring Design of Instruction/Intervention What should the overall process look like at this tier?

46 Problem-Solving Process in Tier III:
Identify why interventions have been unsuccessful Develop and improve existing interventions or generate new interventions that are more intensive

47 Data Dialogue in Tier III:
Identical to Tier II, happens in problem-solving team meetings with same process Consultants continue to dialogue with classroom teacher, parent, etc. between meetings to support intervention plan

48 Progress Monitoring in Tier III:
More often Progress monitoring may need to happen every week; however, depending on the grade level and/or skill less often may be sufficient (every other week) Modifications are made to individualized instruction in response to the data collected

49 Design of Instruction in Tier III: and how to Distinguish from Tier II
The intervention may stay the same but will increase in Intensity (more time per session) Frequency (additional sessions during day or week) Duration (implement intervention over longer period of time in weeks) The focus of the intervention may change as well

50 Overall Process of Tier III:
Supplemental – continue to educate student in core curriculum and with the interventions that have been implemented if successful Interventions and progress monitoring intensify If the goal is to gain academic and behavior skills the lack of progress and inability to close the Gap with intensive interventions may indicate a disability issue

51 Understanding and Utilizing the Comprehensive Evaluation Tool

52 Implementation Rubric
Evaluating Systems Implementation Rubric

53 Response to Intervention – Professional Development Continuum
Focus of Professional Development Beginning Level Intermediate Level Advanced Level Leadership 1) Philosophy 2) Leadership Role Expectations 3) Understanding Problem- Solving, Progress Monitoring, and Intervention Development Philosophy of RtI Building Responsibilities and Expectations Components necessary for effective implementation of RtI Administrator Roles Coordinator Roles Leadership Expectations Shared Leadership and decision making Trainer of Trainers Understanding the Problem-Solving Process, Progress Monitoring & Intervention Development Curriculum & Instruction Accommodations, modifications, and interventions. Rigor and Relevance Differentiated Instruction Identifying appropriate intervention intensity Using data to develop individual interventions Understanding accommodations, modifications and interventions Identifying appropriate interventions based on time, intensity, and instruction Using data to develop appropriate individual interventions Problem -Solving Process 1) Consultation Overview 2) Collaborative Consultation skills and expectations 3) Utilizing the Problem-Solving Process in the RtI Model Consultation Overview What are consultants roles What are teachers roles Difference between Consultation and other skills Collaborative Consultation Skills and Expectations Developing an efficient and effective consultant Consultation in Problem-solving Process Utilizing the Problem- solving process in RtI: from referral to results Identifying a Specific Learning Disabilities utilizing the Problem- solving process

54 Response to Intervention – Professional Development Continuum
Focus of Professional Development Beginning Level Intermediate Level Advanced Level Progress Monitoring Assessment What is Curriculum Based Measurement? Training on administering, scoring, and using CBM data AIMs Web & Intervention Central Effectively monitoring behavior What is CBM? (Definition and Examples) Important components for monitoring behavior Training on administering and scoring CBM AIMs Web Intervention Central Diagnostic Assessments Next steps in utilizing CBM to make instruction decisions based on data Functional Behavior Assessment School Climate & Culture Building Consensus Developing Professional Learning Communities Establishing regular and consistent data dialogues at each Tier Positive Behavior Support Developing consensus: District Building Utilizing Positive Behavior Support Professional Learning Communities Data Dialogues: Tier I Behavior Data Making instructional decisions based on achievement data Making system decisions based on behavior data Parent & Community Involvement What is RtI? What does RtI mean for my student? What is a comprehensive evaluation when utilizing the RtI process? How do community resources support RtI? What is RtI?

55 What are the training needs in the district/school?
Evaluating Systems What are the training needs in the district/school?

56 Helpful Websites Intervention Central: progress monitoring, intervention ideas, behavior resources Aimsweb: progress monitoring resources What Works Clearinghouse: Strategies and programs that are researched based Doing What Works: U.S. Department of Education resources on interventions that are research based

57 Helpful Websites Florida Center for Reading Research: reading research based information Pikes Peak Literacy Strategies Project: Strategies for the 5 components of reading (phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, comprehension and vocabulary) National Progress Monitoring Organization: progress monitoring tools

58 Helpful Websites Colorado Department of Education--RtI Resources
National Association of State Directors of Special Education

59 RtI: Meeting the Needs of ALL Students
Education, compensatory education, special education, and gifted education in operating as a seamless, unified system. Ensures all students receive high quality instruction and are held to high standards of achievement. Provides help more quickly to struggling learners, preventing the “wait-to-fail” phenomenon. Alternate interventions – special education or other eligibility-driven programs not only pathway. Shifts focus from eligibility to a focus on effective instruction and results. Lowers proportion of minority students misidentified as needing special education.

60 Excellence can be achieved if you…
Care more than others think is wise… Risk more than others think is safe… Dream more than others think is practical… Expect more than others think is possible… - Roland Barth

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