Presentation on theme: "Warm Up Journal: Please read the “One Sperm Donor” article. What questions do you have about the article? Do you think sperm banks should be more heavily."— Presentation transcript:
Warm Up Journal: Please read the “One Sperm Donor” article. What questions do you have about the article? Do you think sperm banks should be more heavily regulated by the US government? Why or why not? What kinds of developmental or psychological issues might children of sperm donation develop? Do you think it is unethical for 1 sperm donation to lead to 150 children? Why or why not? Write your answers in your journals.
Psychological Research Methods Excavating Human Behaviors
Scientific Method 1.Observe some aspect of the universe. 2. Invent a theory/hypothesis that is consistent with what you have observed. 3.Use the theory to make predictions. 4.Test those predictions by experiments or further observations. 5.Modify the theory in the light of your results. 6.Go to step 3.
Hypothesis A tentative theory that has not yet been tested. Must be: Operational definitions (explain exactly how you will define the variables) Replicable (someone else should be able to complete the same experiment.
Hindsight Bias The tendency to believe, after learning the outcome, that you knew it all along.
Other Bias Confirmation Bias: The tendency to search for information that confirms a preconception. Participant Bias: the tendency for research participants to behave a certain way because they know they are being observed
Overconfidence We tend to think we know more than we do or that we are more correct that we are. 81% of drivers rank themselves as being in the top 15% of safe drivers. Obviously, they cannot all be in the top 15%!
Types of Research Descriptive Correlational Experiments
Descriptive Research Any research that observes and records. Does not talk about relationships, it just describes. What is going on in this picture? We cannot say exactly, but we can describe what we see. Thus we have…..
The Case Study Where one person (or situation) is observed in depth. What are the strengths and weaknesses of using a tragedy like the Columbine School shootings as a case study?
The Survey Method Used in both descriptional and correlational research. Use Interview, mail, phone, internet etc… Benefits: cheap, anonymous, diverse population, and easy to get random sampling (a sampling that represents your population you want to study). Why do we sample? One reason is the False Consensus Effect: the tendency to overestimate the extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors.
Survey Method: The Bad Low Response Rate People Lie or just misinterpret themselves. Wording Effects How accurate would a survey of high school students be about the frequency drinking if Mrs. King was conducting the study?
Naturalistic Observation Observing and recording behavior in natural environment. No control- just an observer. What are the benefits and drawbacks of Naturalistic Observation?
Correlational Research Detects relationships between variables. Does not say that one variable CAUSES another. In the 2008 election, there was a positive correlation of young people voting for Barack Obama… does that mean being young caused someone to vote for Obama?
Correlations Strength of correlation is measured using a correlation coefficient. A statistical measure of the extent to which two factors relate to one another
Experimental Research Explores cause and effect relationships. Listening to music while studying Good grades
Steps in Designing an Experiment 1. Form a hypothesis 2. Pick Population: Random Selection then Random Assignment. 3. Operationalize the Variables (explain the exact procedures used to define research behaviors) 4. Identify Independent and Dependent Variables. 5. Look for extraneous variables that may disrupt your experiment 6. Type of Experiment: Blind (don’t tell participants what hypothesis is), Double Blind (don’t tell data collectors or participants) etc.. 7. Gather Data 8. Analyze Results: Use measures of central tendency (mean, median and mode) Use measures of variation (range and standard deviation).
Experimental Vocabulary Independent Variable: factor that is manipulated Dependent Variable: factor that is measured Extraneous Variables: factors that effect DV, that are not IV. Experimental Group: Group exposed to IV Control Group: Group not exposed to IV Placebo: inert substance that is in place of IV in Control Group
Analyze Results Use measures of central tendency (mean, median and mode). Use measures of variation (range and standard deviation).
Types of Research Use p29-41 to fill in this table. Type of ResearchDescribe itBenefits?Problems? Naturalistic Observation Case Study Experiment Survey Longitudinal Method
Short Answer #3: Why are we altruistic? Considering the scene we just viewed, how would these types of psychology explain why we help strangers? socio-cultural psychology psychoanalysis behavioral psychology cognitive psychology ATTACH THIS TO YOUR STUDY GUIDE