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Master in Water Engineering Water Supply and Drainage Systems.

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Presentation on theme: "Master in Water Engineering Water Supply and Drainage Systems."— Presentation transcript:

1 Master in Water Engineering Water Supply and Drainage Systems

2 Subject Contents Water Supply in a historical approach (Prof. Alberte Martínez) GIS (Prof. Alberto Varela and Luis Hernández) Water quality and regulation (Prof Ana Vázquez) Water supply and sewer systems (Prof Gustavo Vázquez) Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (Prof J.Cagiao) Water Law (prof. Sanz Larruga)

3 Water Supply in a historical approach Professor in charge: Alberte Martínez López

4 Aims To analyse the water management in the long run and their economic, institutional and technological constraints To know the main stages in the water supply in Spain

5 PROGRAMME (first session) What is Water? A comprehensive approach From the Clasic to the Modern System of Drinking Water –Clasic System (preindustrial times) –Transition to the Modern System (first industrialization, XIX) –Modern System (second industrialization, XX)

6 PROGRAMME (second session) Water supply and business management in Spain –Private management, 1840-1936 –Public intervention and municipalization, 1936-1975 –Privatizations, 1975-> The sector in the recient years –Generic data –Supply –Quality –Drainage

7 AVALIATION (1 point) Essai (5 pages maximum) on an article/chapter of the selected bibliography ( By email: Deadline: first of December

8 What is Water? A comprehensive approach For a chemist: H20 For a phisycist: a liquid For a engineer: a fluid For a politician: power (votes) For a tourist: leisure, health For urban people: comfort For peasants: harvest For an energy company: electricity For a businessman: an input For a “primitive”: life and religion

9 The Water Debate Debate not only academic but also social A commodity/production factor (Neoclasics) –Economic features –Assignment by the market: competition and price –Private Property rights –Search for efficency –Focused on expanding the offer

10 The Water Debate Social asset (institutionalist economists) –Symbolic, cultural, emotional values –Collective property rights/management –Assignement by the community Market limits to distribute it in different uses Public regulation Cooperation, equality –Focused in controlling the demand –Scarcity –Sustainability

11 From the Clasic to the Modern System of Drinking Water Clasic System (preindustrial times) Transition to the Modern System (first industrialization, XIX) Modern System (second industrialization, XX)

12 The Clasic System Preindustrial times Predominance of agricultural use (irrigation): Ancient High Cultures And for small cities: renaissance of commerce Diversification of supplies –Individuals: wells –Colective: aqueducts, fountains

13 The Clasic System (2) Constraints –Economic: lack of capital –Organizational: no experience –Technological: prescientific stage Materials Machines Projets design

14 The Clasic System (3) Not general accessibility: linear nature of aqueducts (simple nets) Scarce, biological, consumption (10 l/d) Lack of control on quality

15 Transition to the Modern System First industrialization, XIX century The standstill of the Clasic System –Stagnancy/fall and deterioration of drinking water supply New industrial uses Pollution –The rise of the demand Demographic growth Strong urbanization Industrialization Changes in body cleanliness habits

16 Transition to the Modern System Public financial, organizational and technological inability->resort to private companies Slow process –Coexistence of supplies Fountains and water-carriers (photo) Networked home supply –Users´ resistance: from a free good to a fare


18 Changes in the institutional framework From the Feudalism –Undefined, confused and complex property rights: shared, comunal, “imperfect” property –Immobilized good To the Capitalism –Privatization: individual property –Definition of property rights –“Perfect” (private) property –Liberalization: water as a commodity Aim: to promote the productive uses of water

19 Water, hygiene and mortality Higher mortality in cities (overcrowding) Higher mortality in popular neighborhoods (low areas, more unhealthy) Reinforcement of social segregation, also in water access (low and high areas) Persistence of epidemies, some of them related to the water quality: typhoid fever, malaria, cholera Close relation between mortality fall and quality water supply and drainage (graphic)

20 Mortality by typhoid fever (1900-1955), in so much for thousand, five-year average

21 Water, hygiene and mortality (2) High price of water, with risen tendency, both absolutely and relatively Lack of drainage Reluctance of houses and pieces of land owners to their modernization (water supply and drainage) due to the taxes Rivalry and emulation among cities

22 Water, hygiene and mortality (3) Progressive concern for public health in XIXth century Importance of the reformist and hygienist movement: air, water and sun Initial concern only for the quantity of water Concern for the quality from the middle of XIXth century, and for the drainage from the end of that century Scientific discoveries (bacteriology, Koch, Pasteur) in the late XIXth and legal and technical developments in the early XXth Different approaches from doctors, engineers, urbanists and chemists, who took time to agree

23 Modern System Second industrialization, XXth Linked to industrialization and urbanization Specialized in home supply Predominance of colective networks Public service High consumption (250 l/d)

24 Modern System (2) More financial resources: mixed banks Organizational improvements: managerial revolution New technological resources: the Second Industrial Revolution

25 Water supply and business management in Spain Private management, 1840- 1936 Public intervention and municipalization, 1936-1975 Privatizations, 1975->

26 Private management, 1840-1936 Private management due to the public limits Construction of the networks Expansion of the service Relationship with urban growth and new bourgeoisie neighborhoods (Ensanches) Small investments Small volume of flows with no planning of future needs (private model->economic short term profitability)

27 Private management, 1840-1936 Start of the process, 1840- 1900 Consolidation and plenitude, 1900-1936

28 Start of the process, 1840-1900 Small initiatives Most of them in big cities Some of them speculatives ->failure and sell of concession to big companies, some foreign

29 Consolidation and plenitude, 1900-1936 Spread to small and medium size cities From city center to popular neighborhoods Legal development Declaration as public service First public subsidies





34 The role of the foreig investment Advantages: k, technology, management, experience Important role but smaller than in other sectors (mines, railway, electricity) Interested in financial investment and sell pipes Focused in big industrial or mining cities and ports Tipology –Small companies (speculatives) and engineers –Big companies, backed by banks, which uses politicians ans small co as intermediaries

35 The role of the foreig investment Pioneers: GB in Andalusia, middle of XIXth –Traditional presence: xerez wine, mines –Municipalization of water companies in GB in the last third of XIXth Belges, in Barcelona (1867) and Alicante French (the biggest) in Barcelona (1882)


37 The role of the foreig investment 1850-1880: first sizing up 1880-1913: plenitude –Golden age of global fdi 1914-1959: withdraw –Economic crises –Nationalist and municipalist background 1960 onwards: slight recovery –Mainly technological consultancy –France (Lyonnaise des Eaux-Suez) and USA

38 Spatial distribution Factors: economic, demographic and urbanistic dynamism Biggest concentration and precocity in mediterranean coast (Barcelona) –Strong urbanization –Concentrated population –Economic development –Light rain

39 Spatial distribution Backwardness in the rest –Interior: economic, demographic and urbanistic stagnation –North: scattered population, heavy rain Path –Big->medium-small cities (emulation effect) –Public and emblematic buildings->bourgeoise- >popular neighborhoods




43 Public intervention and municipalization, 1936-1975 Causes –Franquiste state intervention –Economic strangulation Costs inflation Fares freezing –Need of investments to meet the expansion of demand –Priority in state subsidies to the municipalities –Proximity of concessions expirity –Service deterioration

44 Public intervention and municipalization, 1936-1975 Municipalization as a municipal service, not a municipal company Municipal dificulties to manage the service –Tendencies to group water supply and drainage –Tendencies to set up municipal syndicates

45 Privatizations, 1975-> Causes –Economic crisis of 70s –Structural deficit, aggravated by the crisis –Neoliberalism Tipology –Municipal/mixed company –Private company Entry of construction companies Aguas de Barcelona as a giant

46 Privatizations, 1975-> Diversification towards technological specialization and consultancy New culture of water –Control of demand –Fares have to integrate the whole costs, including drainage

47 The sector in the recient years Generic data Supply Quality Drainage

48 Generic data Management regime Prices and costs Workforce

49 Management regime 1990 –Weight of public management, specially by the own municipality –More weight of private companies in small cities –More weight of public companies in big cities 2008-2010 –Predominance of companies (private or public), instead of municipalities –More weight of private management, specially in small and medium size cities –More weight of mixed companies, specially in big cities

50 Management regime in 1990

51 Management regime in 2010

52 Management regime in 2008

53 Management regime in municipalities under 20.000 inhabitants, 2008

54 Prices and costs Regional prices according to the access costs Cheaper than in Europe Cheaper than other utilities Tendency to subcontracting

55 Prices in 2008

56 Prices in European cities, 2010

57 Water in family budgets, 2010

58 Costs structure, 2008

59 Workforce Progressive improvement in professional qualifications Qualifications level according to the cities size

60 Staff by categories, 1990-2008

61 Staff according town size, 2008

62 Water origin Predominance of superficial water Quite importance, specially in small cities, mediterranean coast and islands, of underground water, but decreasing Importance of desalted water in islands and Melilla

63 Water origin, 1987

64 Water origin, 2008


66 networks In general: less % of modern materials in big cities (older networks) Aduction network materials –Predominance of fibrocement, specially in small towns –Second position for concrete, specially in medium size and big cities Distribution network materials –Predominance of cast iron in big cities and fibrocement in small and medium size cities

67 Aduction network, 2008

68 Distribution network, 2008


70 Water consumption Fall due to ecological awareness, efficiency and price 1987: higher in big cities (non domestic uses) 2010: higher in small towns (less eficiency) Higher in NW, less in SE (rain) Predominance of domestic use, specially in small towns Less than in European cities

71 Water consumption, 1987-2010

72 Water consumption by town size, 1987

73 Water consumption by town size,2010

74 Water consumption by region, 2008

75 Water consumption by uses, 2010

76 Water consumption in European cities, 2010

77 Water not registered Strong fall, but still high, specially in small towns (less efficiency) Some correlation with hydrographic basins, but not strong

78 Water not registered, 1990-2008

79 Water not registered, 2008


81 Quality Light improvement Higher in N, less in Mediterranean coast

82 Quality, 1994-2008

83 Quality, 2008

84 Drainage Network quite old, specially in big cities Predominance of traditional materials (concrete), specially in big cities Main problems –Network insufficiency –Incomplete information –Bad network conditions

85 Drainage network age, 2008

86 Drainage network materials, 2008

87 Drainage problems, 2008

88 Management tools High technification, specially in big cities, but still non complete Higher in supply networks than in drainage ones

89 Management tools, 2008

90 Management tools, 2010

91 Basic bibliography AGUILERA, F., 1993: Economía del agua, Madrid: MAPA. Articles of Kelso, Brown and Ingram, Bromley, Chan, Aguilera, or Wade. BIGATTI, G., 1997: «La conquista dell’acqua. Urbanizzazione e aprovvigionamento idrico», en BIGATTI, GIUNTINI, MANTEGAZZA y ROTONDI, L’acqua e il gas in Italia, Milán: Francoangeli, 27-161. BLACK, Maggie, 2009. The atlas of water: mapping the world's most critical resource. Berkeley: University of California Press. GEORGE, S., 2008. Water and sustainable development. Expoagua Zaragoza. HASSAN, J. A., 1998: A History of Water in Modern England and Wales, Manchester: Manchester University Press. MARTÍNEZ, A. (dir.), GIADÁS, L., MIRÁS, J., PIÑEIRO, C. y REGO, G., 2004, Aguas de La Coruña, 1903-2003. Cien años al servicio de la ciudad. Madrid: Lid.

92 Basic bibliography MATÉS, J.M. (1998), Cambio institucional y servicios municipales. Una historia del servicio público de abastecimiento de agua. Editorial Comares, Granada. - (1999), La conquista del agua. Historia económica del abastecimiento urbano. Universidad de Jaén, Jaén. NACIONES UNIDAS, 2008. El Agua : una responsabilidad compartida: 2º informe de las Naciones Unidas sobre el desarrollo de los recursos hídricos en el mundo. Zaragoza: Sociedad Estatal Expoagua Zaragoza. NAREDO, J.M. (ed.), 1997. La economía del agua en España. Madrid :Fundación Argentaria. Articles of Naredo and Aguilera. SHIVA, Vandana, 2004. Las guerras del agua: contaminación, privatización y negocio. Barcelona: Icaria. SHIVA, Vandana, 2008. Water and Earth's biodiversity =El agua y la biodiversidad de la Tierra = La biodiversité de l'eau et de la Terre. Zaragoza: Sociedad Estatal Expoagua Zaragoza. SUEVOS, R., 1995. A Sede da terra. Economía da auga. Santiago de Compostela: Laiovento.

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