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Sudan:Ongoing Conflicts By: Hollis B., Toni M., and Devon T.

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Presentation on theme: "Sudan:Ongoing Conflicts By: Hollis B., Toni M., and Devon T."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sudan:Ongoing Conflicts By: Hollis B., Toni M., and Devon T.

2 EQ: What were the major conflicts between North and South Sudan?

3 BR: What point do you think the author of this cartoon is trying to make?

4 Our Independence is Gone 1899- January 9th the British and Anglo- Egyptians signed the Agreement that said Sudan was under British controls. They took away Sudan's independence by trying to modernize and civilize Sudan with their technology. They really just wanted the sudanese gold, raw minerals, and other resources for themselves.

5 Fighting for Independence 1956- On January 1st the Sudanese gained their independence from the Anglo- Egyptians, British agreement. This agreement said that Sudan was under the control of British. After gaining their independence Sudan became an Islamic-State, that spoke over 400 languages, with over 600 ethnic groups.

6 Fighting for Independence 1969- May 25th Gaafar Mohamad became Sudan's president so he could lead the May Revolution. The Revolution was caused by a group of southern Sudanese who was being rebellious against Sudanese laws. This caused another fight between the rebels and Sudanese soldiers. As an outcome, Sudanese soldiers won the revolution.

7 The Catalyst - The formation of the SPLA *Northern Sudan: Mainly muslim religion. *Southern Sudan: Mainly christian religion. 1983- Northern sudan introduced Sharia laws which are laws based on muslim religion. The south (who practiced a mixture of religion including mainly christian, but excluding Arab religion) was angered because of the force of muslim religion upon them. The SPLA (Sudanese People's Liberation Army) was started when the northern army killed 500 of the south's troops for refusing to be drafted into the north. The SPLA is a pro-southern movement to fight for the freedoms of the south.

8 Peace at last? -2002-The SPLA and the Sudanese Government signed a landmark peace deal, putting an end to 19 years of civil war between the north and south, that began in 1955. -Humanitarian laws were enforced, providing resources, and rights for all parts of sudan.

9 Genocide in Darfur In 2003 two rebel groups in Darfur rose up against the Sudanese government for neglecting the state of resources. In Darfur there were many people against the government and groups of christians. (though Darfur is located in north Sudan) in 2004 Pro- government Militias of north Sudan,such as the Janjaweed militia, attacked rebelling villages in west Darfur killing off villages of christians, and even muslim populations with dark skin! -The capital of sudan, Khartoum, publicly was against the killings, but secretly financially aided the militias and provided them weaponry.

10 Map of Sudan.

11 Genocide in Darfur cont. The killings continued and worsened, and the U.S labels them genocide. The U.N however says that it is just a failure by the Sudanese government to control militias after the peace agreement was signed. It wasn't until 2006 when the UN security council voted to send a strong peacekeeping force to Darfur but the sudanese president, Omar al Bashir, thought that would be a violation of sovereignty and refused to allow the UN source's help. 2007- the ICC (international criminal court) issues first arrest warrants for a sudanese minister and a janjaweed militia leader. 2007- Sudan finally allows the AU-UN protection forces into Darfur.

12 On the road to freedom... 2008- Sudan's People Liberation Army (S) and Sudan's Armed Forces (N) went to war They fought over control of the oil rich town of Abyei Most of Abyei was burned to the ground and 50,000 people fled the city The war was ended with the Abyei roadmap agreement which was created to end the violence, not decide who controls the oil.

13 Accusations -In 2008 the International Criminal Court wanted Omar Al Bashir arrested for 1.War Crimes 2.Crimes against humanity 3.Genocide in Darfur dating back to years of 2003 to that time -Sudan refused and President Bashir was not arrested

14 The North strikes oil -In 2009 The Hague, a government group for international affairs, gives the Muslim dominated North control over Abyei oil supply as well as the town itself. -The borders of Abyei were redrawn for the oil deal

15 On the road to freedom... 2011- On July 9th, 2011 Southern Sudan became an independent nation Southern Sudan became an independent country and the 193rd member of the U.N America helped Sudan fight for independence in 2005

16 ACTIVITY Part I Skill:SWBAT use knowledge of events and creativity to understand and portray points of view. Instructions: Make a protest poster from the point of view of the South/North of Sudan, on one of the following conflicts: * Religion - Why should the North implement the Sharia laws? Why shouldn't the laws be implemented? *Possession of Oil- Why should your country get control over the oil/Why shouldn't the other country control the oil. Make sure you use your notes and write from your country's point of view, even if it is a viewpoint you disagree with. Make it thoughtful and interesting! Try your best! REMEMBER: NORTH AND SOUTH SUDAN HAVE BROKEN APART. THE SOUTH POTENTIALLY BREAKING OFF OF ANY RESOURCES IT MIGHT NEED, KNOWINGLY. THE SOUTH OF SUDAN IS MAINLY CHRISTIAN. THE NORTH WANTS CONTROL OVER RELIGION. THE NORTH CONTROLS RESOURCES.THE NORTH IS MAINLY MUSLIM.

17 Activity Part II Write a quick 1-2 paragraph letter from the point of view of the U.S to the capital of Sudan, Khartoum, regarding your opinion of the genocide in Darfur. Include your opinion of the capital's melancholy reaction. Use your notes.

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