Presentation on theme: "Effectively and Securely Using the Cloud Computing Paradigm"— Presentation transcript:
1 Effectively and Securely Using the Cloud Computing Paradigm Cloud Computing Quotes from Vivek Kundra (Federal CIO):"The cloud will do for government what the Internet did in the '90s," he said. "We're interested in consumer technology for the enterprise," Kundra added. "It's a fundamental change to the way our government operates by moving to the cloud. Rather than owning the infrastructure, we can save millions."“I believe it's the future," he says. "It's moving technology leaders away from just owning assets, deploying assets and maintaining assets to fundamentally changing the way services are delivered.“"It's definitely not hype," says Vivek Kundra, CTO for the District of Columbia government, which plans to blend IT services provided from its own data center with external cloud platforms like Google Apps. "Any technology leader who thinks it's hype is coming at it from the same place where technology leaders said the Internet is hype.“
3 Origin of the term “Cloud Computing” “Comes from the early days of the Internet where we drew the network as a cloud… we didn’t care where the messages went… the cloud hid it from us” – Kevin Marks, GoogleFirst cloud around networking (TCP/IP abstraction)Second cloud around documents (WWW data abstraction)The emerging cloud abstracts infrastructure complexities of servers, applications, data, and heterogeneous platforms(“muck” as Amazon’s CEO Jeff Bezos calls it)Jeff Bezos’ quote:Kevin Marks quote: video interview
4 A Working Definition of Cloud Computing Cloud computing is a model for enabling convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction.This cloud model promotes availability and is composed of five essential characteristics, three service models, and four deployment models.Note 1: Cloud computing is still an evolving paradigm. Its definitions, use cases, underlying technologies, issues, risks, and benefits will be refined in a spirited debate by the public and private sectors. These definitions, attributes, and characteristics will evolve and change over time.Note 2: The cloud computing industry represents a large ecosystem of many models, vendors, and market niches. This definition attempts to encompass all of the various cloud approaches.
6 3 Cloud Service Models Cloud Software as a Service (SaaS) Use provider’s applications over a networkCloud Platform as a Service (PaaS)Deploy customer-created applications to a cloudCloud Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)Rent processing, storage, network capacity, and other fundamental computing resourcesTo be considered “cloud” they must be deployed on top of cloud infrastructure that has the key characteristicsCloud Software as a Service (SaaS). The capability provided to the consumer is to use the provider’s applications running on a cloud infrastructure and accessible from various client devices through a thin client interface such as a Web browser (e.g., web-based ). The consumer does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure, network, servers, operating systems, storage, or even individual application capabilities, with the possible exception of limited user-specific application configuration settings.Cloud Platform as a Service (PaaS). The capability provided to the consumer is to deploy onto the cloud infrastructure consumer-created applications using programming languages and tools supported by the provider (e.g., java, python, .Net). The consumer does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure, network, servers, operating systems, or storage, but the consumer has control over the deployed applications and possibly application hosting environment configurations.Cloud Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS). The capability provided to the consumer is to provision processing, storage, networks, and other fundamental computing resources where the consumer is able to deploy and run arbitrary software, which can include operating systems and applications. The consumer does not manage or control the underlying cloud infrastructure but has control over operating systems, storage, deployed applications, and possibly select networking components (e.g., firewalls, load balancers).
8 4 Cloud Deployment Models Private cloudenterprise owned or leasedCommunity cloudshared infrastructure for specific communityPublic cloudSold to the public, mega-scale infrastructureHybrid cloudcomposition of two or more cloudsPrivate cloud. The cloud infrastructure is operated solely for an organization. It may be managed by the organization or a third party and may exist on premise or off premise.Community cloud. The cloud infrastructure is shared by several organizations and supports a specific community that has shared concerns (e.g., mission, security requirements, policy, and compliance considerations). It may be managed by the organizations or a third party and may exist on premise or off premise.Public cloud. The cloud infrastructure is made available to the general public or a large industry group and is owned by an organization selling cloud services.Hybrid cloud. The cloud infrastructure is a composition of two or more clouds (private, community, or public) that remain unique entities but are bound together by standardized or proprietary technology that enables data and application portability (e.g., cloud bursting).
9 Common Cloud Characteristics Cloud computing often leverages:Massive scaleHomogeneityVirtualizationResilient computingLow cost softwareGeographic distributionService orientationAdvanced security technologies
10 The NIST Cloud Definition Framework Hybrid CloudsDeploymentModelsCommunityCloudPrivate CloudPublic CloudServiceModelsSoftware as a Service (SaaS)Platform as a Service (PaaS)Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)Resource PoolingBroad Network AccessRapid ElasticityMeasured ServiceOn Demand Self-ServiceEssentialCharacteristicsCloud diagram idea inspired by Maria SpinolaLow Cost SoftwareVirtualizationService OrientationAdvanced SecurityMassive ScaleResilient ComputingHomogeneityGeographic DistributionCommonCharacteristicsBased upon original chart created by Alex Dowbor -
13 Analyzing Cloud Security Some key issues:trust, multi-tenancy, encryption, complianceClouds are massively complex systems can be reduced to simple primitives that are replicated thousands of times and common functional unitsCloud security is a tractable problemThere are both advantages and challengesFormer Intel CEO, Andy Grove: “only the paranoid survive”
14 General Security Advantages Shifting public data to a external cloud reduces the exposure of the internal sensitive dataCloud homogeneity makes security auditing/testing simplerClouds enable automated security managementRedundancy / Disaster Recovery
15 General Security Challenges Trusting vendor’s security modelCustomer inability to respond to audit findingsObtaining support for investigationsIndirect administrator accountabilityProprietary implementations can’t be examinedLoss of physical control
16 Security Relevant Cloud Components Cloud Provisioning ServicesCloud Data Storage ServicesCloud Processing InfrastructureCloud Support ServicesCloud Network and Perimeter SecurityElastic Elements: Storage, Processing, and Virtual Networks
17 Provisioning Service Advantages Rapid reconstitution of services Enables availabilityProvision in multiple data centers / multiple instancesAdvanced honey net capabilitiesChallengesImpact of compromising the provisioning service
18 Data Storage Services Advantages Data fragmentation and dispersal Automated replicationProvision of data zones (e.g., by country)Encryption at rest and in transitAutomated data retentionChallengesIsolation management / data multi-tenancyStorage controllerSingle point of failure / compromise?Exposure of data to foreign governments
19 Cloud Processing Infrastructure AdvantagesAbility to secure masters and push out secure imagesChallengesApplication multi-tenancyReliance on hypervisorsProcess isolation / Application sandboxes
20 Cloud Support Services AdvantagesOn demand security controls (e.g., authentication, logging, firewalls…)ChallengesAdditional risk when integrated with customer applicationsNeeds certification and accreditation as a separate applicationCode updates
21 Cloud Network and Perimeter Security AdvantagesDistributed denial of service protectionVLAN capabilitiesPerimeter security (IDS, firewall, authentication)ChallengesVirtual zoning with application mobility
22 Cloud Security Advantages Part 1 Data Fragmentation and DispersalDedicated Security TeamGreater Investment in Security InfrastructureFault Tolerance and ReliabilityGreater ResiliencyHypervisor Protection Against Network AttacksPossible Reduction of C&A Activities (Access to Pre-Accredited Clouds)
23 Cloud Security Advantages Part 2 Simplification of Compliance AnalysisData Held by Unbiased Party (cloud vendor assertion)Low-Cost Disaster Recovery and Data Storage SolutionsOn-Demand Security ControlsReal-Time Detection of System TamperingRapid Re-Constitution of ServicesAdvanced Honeynet Capabilities
24 Cloud Security Challenges Part 1 Data dispersal and international privacy lawsEU Data Protection Directive and U.S. Safe Harbor programExposure of data to foreign government and data subpoenasData retention issuesNeed for isolation managementMulti-tenancyLogging challengesData ownership issuesQuality of service guarantees
25 Cloud Security Challenges Part 2 Dependence on secure hypervisorsAttraction to hackers (high value target)Security of virtual OSs in the cloudPossibility for massive outagesEncryption needs for cloud computingEncrypting access to the cloud resource control interfaceEncrypting administrative access to OS instancesEncrypting access to applicationsEncrypting application data at restPublic cloud vs internal cloud securityLack of public SaaS version control
26 Additional IssuesIssues with moving PII and sensitive data to the cloudPrivacy impact assessmentsUsing SLAs to obtain cloud securitySuggested requirements for cloud SLAsIssues with cloud forensicsContingency planning and disaster recovery for cloud implementationsHandling complianceFISMAHIPAASOXPCISAS 70 Audits
28 The ‘Why’ and ‘How’ of Cloud Migration There are many benefits that explain why to migrate to cloudsCost savings, power savings, green savings, increased agility in software deploymentCloud security issues may drive and define how we adopt and deploy cloud computing solutions
29 Balancing Threat Exposure and Cost Effectiveness Private clouds may have less threat exposure than community clouds which have less threat exposure than public clouds.Massive public clouds may be more cost effective than large community clouds which may be more cost effective than small private clouds.Doesn’t strong security controls mean that I can adopt the most cost effective approach?
30 Cloud Migration and Cloud Security Architectures Clouds typically have a single security architecture but have many customers with different demandsClouds should attempt to provide configurable security mechanismsOrganizations have more control over the security architecture of private clouds followed by community and then publicThis doesn’t say anything about actual securityHigher sensitivity data is likely to be processed on clouds where organizations have control over the security model
31 Putting it TogetherMost clouds will require very strong security controlsAll models of cloud may be used for differing tradeoffs between threat exposure and efficiencyThere is no one “cloud”. There are many models and architectures.How does one choose?
32 Migration Paths for Cloud Adoption Use public cloudsDevelop private cloudsBuild a private cloudProcure an outsourced private cloudMigrate data centers to be private clouds (fully virtualized)Build or procure community cloudsOrganization wide SaaSPaaS and IaaSDisaster recovery for private cloudsUse hybrid-cloud technologyWorkload portability between clouds
33 Possible Effects of Cloud Computing Small enterprises use public SaaS and public clouds and minimize growth of data centersLarge enterprise data centers may evolve to act as private cloudsLarge enterprises may use hybrid cloud infrastructure software to leverage both internal and public cloudsPublic clouds may adopt standards in order to run workloads from competing hybrid cloud infrastructures
34 Part II: Cloud Resources, Case Studies, and Security Models
35 Core objectives of Cloud Computing Amazon CTO Werner VogelsCore objectives and principles that cloud computing must meet to be successful:SecurityScalabilityAvailabilityPerformanceCost-effectiveAcquire resources on demandRelease resources when no longer neededPay for what you useLeverage others’ core competenciesTurn fixed cost into variable costSource:
36 Sun's Vision of the Future Sun Microsystems CTO Greg PapadopoulosUsers will “trust” service providers with their data like they trust banks with their money“Hosting providers [will] bring ‘brutal efficiency’ for utilization, power, security, service levels, and idea-to-deploy time” –CNET articleBecoming cost ineffective to build data centersOrganizations will rent computing resourcesEnvisions grid of 6 cloud infrastructure providers linked to 100 regional providersData source: CNET article 6/25/08
38 Foundational Elements of Cloud Computing Primary TechnologiesOther TechnologiesVirtualizationGrid technologyService Oriented ArchitecturesDistributed ComputingBroadband NetworksBrowser as a platformFree and Open Source SoftwareAutonomic SystemsWeb 2.0Web application frameworksService Level Agreements
39 Web 2.0 Is not a standard but an evolution in using the WWW “Don’t fight the Internet” – CEO Google, Eric SchmidtWeb 2.0 is the trend of using the full potential of the webViewing the Internet as a computing platformRunning interactive applications through a web browserLeveraging interconnectivity and mobility of devicesThe “long tail” (profits in selling specialized small market goods)Enhanced effectiveness with greater human participationTim O'Reilly: “Web 2.0 is the business revolution in the computer industry caused by the move to the Internet as a platform, and an attempt to understand the rules for success on that new platform.”Source: Long tail, The Long Tail" by Chris Anderson, Wired, Oct. 2004Source: O’Reilly quote,
40 Software as a Service (SaaS) SaaS is hosting applications on the Internet as a service (both consumer and enterprise)Jon Williams, CTO of Kaplan Test Prep on SaaS“I love the fact that I don't need to deal with servers, staging, version maintenance, security, performance”Eric Knorr with Computerworld says that “[there is an] increasing desperation on the part of IT to minimize application deployment and maintenance hassles”Source: Williams and computerworld quotes, Software as a service: The next big thing, Eric Knorr 23/03/06,40
41 Three Features of Mature SaaS Applications ScalableHandle growing amounts of work in a graceful mannerMulti-tenancyOne application instance may be serving hundreds of companiesOpposite of multi-instance where each customer is provisioned their own server running one instanceMetadata driven configurabilityInstead of customizing the application for a customer (requiring code changes), one allows the user to configure the application through metadataSource: Scalable definition, André B. Bondi, 'Characteristics of scalability and their impact on performance', Proceedings of the 2nd international workshop on Software and performance, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, 2000, ISBN X, pagesSource: Three attributes for SaaS, Architecture Strategies for Catching the Long Tail, Frederick Chong and Gianpaolo Carraro Microsoft Corporation April 2006,4141
42 SaaS Maturity Levels Level 1: Ad-Hoc/Custom Level 2: Configurable Level 3: Configurable, Multi-Tenant-EfficientLevel 4: Scalable, Configurable, Multi-Tenant-EfficientSource: Architecture Strategies for Catching the Long Tail, Frederick Chong and Gianpaolo Carraro Microsoft Corporation April 2006,42Source: Microsoft MSDN Architecture Center42
43 Utility Computing“Computing may someday be organized as a public utility” - John McCarthy, MIT Centennial in 1961Huge computational and storage capabilities available from utilitiesMetered billing (pay for what you use)Simple to use interface to access the capability (e.g., plugging into an outlet)
44 Service Level Agreements (SLAs) Contract between customers and service providers of the level of service to be providedContains performance metrics (e.g., uptime, throughput, response time)Problem management detailsDocumented security capabilitiesContains penalties for non-performanceSource SLA Zone:Wikipedia definition of SLA:
45 Autonomic System Computing Complex computing systems that manage themselvesDecreased need for human administrators to perform lower level tasksAutonomic properties: Purposeful, Automatic, Adaptive, AwareIBM’s 4 properties: self-healing, self-configuration, self-optimization, and self-protectionSource: 38% statistic, Xiaolong Jin and Jiming Liu, "From Individual Based Modeling to Autonomy Oriented Computation", in Matthias Nickles, Michael Rovatsos, and Gerhard Weiss (editors), Agents and Computational Autonomy: Potential, Risks, and Solutions, pages 151–169, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 2969, Springer, Berlin, ISBNSource: 18:1 statistics, Trends in technology’, survey, Berkeley University of California, USA, March 2002Source: IBM 4 properties,Source: Autonomic properties, Wikipedia entry on autonomic system computing (providing an alternate vision to IBM’s)IT labor costs are 18 times that of equipment costs.The number of computers is growing at 38% each year.
46 Grid Computing Distributed parallel processing across a network Key concept: “the ability to negotiate resource-sharing arrangements”Characteristics of grid computingCoordinates independent resourcesUses open standards and interfacesQuality of serviceAllows for heterogeneity of computersDistribution across large geographical boundariesLoose coupling of computersSource: “What is the Grid? A Three Point Checklist”, Ian Foster,Source: Wikipedia,
47 Platform Virtualization “[Cloud computing] relies on separating your applications from the underlying infrastructure” - Steve Herrod, CTO at VMwareHost operating system provides an abstraction layer for running virtual guest OSsKey is the “hypervisor” or “virtual machine monitor”Enables guest OSs to run in isolation of other OSsRun multiple types of OSsIncreases utilization of physical serversEnables portability of virtual servers between physical serversIncreases security of physical host server
48 Web Services Web Services Self-describing and stateless modules that perform discrete units of work and are available over the network“Web service providers offer APIs that enable developers to exploit functionality over the Internet, rather than delivering full-blown applications.” - InfoworldStandards based interfaces (WS-I Basic Profile)e.g., SOAP, WSDL, WS-SecurityEnabling state: WS-Transaction, ChoreographyMany loosely coupled interacting modules form a single logical system (e.g., legos)Source: ‘Web Services: Principles and Technology’ (Michael Papazoglou) Chapter 1Source: Infoworld quote,Source: Rube Goldberg picture,48
49 Service Oriented Architectures Model for using web servicesservice requestors, service registry, service providersUse of web services to compose complex, customizable, distributed applicationsEncapsulate legacy applicationsOrganize stovepiped applications into collective integrated servicesInteroperability and extensibilitySource: ‘Web Services: Principles and Technology’ (Michael Papazoglou) Chapter 1
50 Web application frameworks Coding frameworks for enabling dynamic web sitesStreamline web and DB related programming operations (e.g., web services support)Creation of Web 2.0 applicationsSupported by most major software languagesExample capabilitiesSeparation of business logic from the user interface (e.g., Model-view-controller architecture)Authentication, Authorization, and Role Based Access Control (RBAC)Unified APIs for SQL DB interactionsSession managementURL mappingWikipedia maintains a list of web application frameworksWikipedia list of frameworks:
51 Free and Open Source Software External ‘mega-clouds’ must focus on using their massive scale to reduce costsUsually use free softwareProven adequate for cloud deploymentsOpen sourceOwned by providerNeed to keep per server cost lowSimple commodity hardwareHandle failures in software
53 Cost of Traditional Data Centers 11.8 million servers in data centersServers are used at only 15% of their capacity800 billion dollars spent yearly on purchasing and maintaining enterprise software80% of enterprise software expenditure is on installation and maintenance of softwareData centers typically consume up to 100 times more per square foot than a typical office buildingAverage power consumption per server quadrupled from 2001 to 2006.Number of servers doubled from 2001 to 2006Source: 11.8 and 15%, Martin MC Brown, Computerworld,Source: $800, Ron Markezich, Vice President Microsoft Online, Microsoft talk at the Booz Allen Hamilton Cloud Computing Summit, 11/20/2008.Source: IBM Report May 2008, Creating a green data center to help reduce energy costs and gain a competitive advantage.
54 Energy Conservation and Data Centers Standard 9000 square foot costs $21.3 million to build with $1 million in electricity costs/yearData centers consume 1.5% of our Nation’s electricity (EPA).6% worldwide in 2000 and 1% in 2005Green technologies can reduce energy costs by 50%IT produces 2% of global carbon dioxide emissionsSource:
55 Cloud Economics Estimates vary widely on possible cost savings “If you move your data centre to a cloud provider, it will cost a tenth of the cost.” – Brian Gammage, Gartner FellowUse of cloud applications can reduce costs from 50% to 90% - CTO of Washington D.C.IT resource subscription pilot saw 28% cost savings - Alchemy Plus cloud (backing from Microsoft)Preferred HotelTraditional: $210k server refresh and $10k/monthCloud: $10k implementation and $16k/monthSource: Gartner stat, ComputerWeekly, 4/11/2008,Source: Alchemy Plus, 12/3/08,Source: Preferred Hotel, 11/24/08,Source: CTO DC, Mike Bradshaw, Google talk at the Booz Allen Hamilton Cloud Computing Summit, 11/20/2008.Patrick Marshall, The power of the cloud. Government Computer News, 9/29/08.
56 Cloud Economics George Reese, founder Valtira and enStratus Using cloud infrastructures saves 18% to 29% before considering that you no longer need to buy for peak capacitySource: Reese,
57 Cloud Computing Case Studies and Security Models
58 Google Cloud User: City of Washington D.C. Vivek Kundra, CTO for the District (now OMB e-gov administrator)Migrating 38,000 employees to Google AppsReplace office softwareGmailGoogle Docs (word processing and spreadsheets)Google video for businessGoogle sites (intranet sites and wikis)“It's a fundamental change to the way our government operates by moving to the cloud. Rather than owning the infrastructure, we can save millions.”, Mr. Kundra500,000+ organizations use Google AppsGE moved 400,000 desktops from Microsoft Office to Google Apps and then migrated them to Zoho for privacy concernsQuote is from
59 Are Hybrid Clouds in our Future? OpenNebulaZimoryIBM-Juniper Partnership"demonstrate how a hybrid cloud could allow enterprises to seamlessly extend their private clouds to remote servers in a secure public cloud...“VMWare VCloud“Federate resources between internal IT and external clouds”Source: IBM hybrid cloud,
60 vCloud Initiative Goal: “Federate resources between internal IT and external clouds”Application portabilityElasticity and scalability, disaster recovery, service level managementvServices provide APIs and technologiesSource: vCloud press release, 9/15/08,
61 Microsoft Azure Services Azure™ Services PlatformSource: Microsoft Presentation, A Lap Around Windows Azure, Manuvir Das
62 Windows Azure Applications, Storage, and Roles mWeb RoleWorker RoleLBCloud Storage (blob, table, queue)Source: Microsoft Presentation, A Lap Around Windows Azure, Manuvir Das
63 Case Study: Facebook’s Use of Open Source and Commodity Hardware (8/08) Jonathan Heiliger, Facebook's vice president of technical operations80 million users + 250,000 new users per day50,000 transactions per second, 10,000+ serversBuilt on open source softwareWeb and App tier: Apache, PHP, AJAXMiddleware tier: Memcached (Open source caching)Data tier: MySQL (Open source DB)Thousands of DB instances store data in distributed fashion (avoids collisions of many users accessing the same DB)“We don't need fancy graphics chips and PCI cards," he said. “We need one USB port and optimized power and airflow. Give me one CPU, a little memory and one power supply. If it fails, I don't care. We are solving the redundancy problem in software.”Data taken from CNET news article and interview 8/18/08
64 Case Study: IBM-Google Cloud (8/08) “Google and IBM plan to roll out a worldwide network of servers for a cloud computing infrastructure” – InfoworldInitiatives for universitiesArchitectureOpen sourceLinux hostsXen virtualization (virtual machine monitor)Apache Hadoop (file system)“open-source software for reliable, scalable, distributed computing”IBM Tivoli Provisioning ManagerSource: Infoworld Article,Source: IBM cloud presentation at BAH cloud computing summit 10/29/08
65 Case Study: Amazon Cloud Amazon cloud componentsElastic Compute Cloud (EC2)Simple Storage Service (S3)SimpleDBNew FeaturesAvailability zonesPlace applications in multiple locations for failoversElastic IP addressesStatic IP addresses that can be dynamically remapped to point to different instances (not a DNS change)Source: Infoworld article (availability zones and elastic IP),
66 Amazon Cloud Users: New York Times and Nasdaq (4/08) Both companies used Amazon’s cloud offeringNew York TimesDidn’t coordinate with Amazon, used a credit card!Used EC2 and S3 to convert 15 million scanned news articles to PDF (4TB data)Took 100 Linux computers 24 hours (would have taken months on NYT computers“It was cheap experimentation, and the learning curve isn't steep.” – Derrick Gottfrid, NasdaqNasdaqUses S3 to deliver historic stock and fund informationMillions of files showing price changes of entities over 10 minute segments“The expenses of keeping all that data online [in Nasdaq servers] was too high.” – Claude Courbois, Nasdaq VPCreated lightweight Adobe AIR application to let users view dataSource: Infoworld,
67 Case Study: Salesforce.com in Government 5,000+ Public Sector and Nonprofit Customers use Salesforce Cloud Computing SolutionsPresident Obama’s Citizen’s Briefing Book Based on Salesforce.com Ideas applicationConcept to Live in Three Weeks134,077 Registered Users1.4 M Votes52,015 IdeasPeak traffic of 149 hits per secondUS Census Bureau Uses Salesforce.com Cloud ApplicationProject implemented in under 12 weeks2,500+ partnership agents use Salesforce.com for 2010 decennial censusAllows projects to scale from 200 to 2,000 users overnight to meet peak periods with no capital expenditureQuote is from
68 Case Study: Salesforce.com in Government New Jersey Transit Wins InfoWorld 100 Award for its Cloud Computing ProjectUse Salesforce.com to run their call center, incident management, complaint tracking, and service portal600% More Inquiries Handled0 New Agents Required36% Improved Response TimeU.S. Army uses Salesforce CRM for Cloud-based RecruitingU.S. Army needed a new tool to track potential recruits who visited its Army Experience Center.Use Salesforce.com to track all core recruitment functions and allows the Army to save time and resources.Quote is from