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Ferrel cell Ferrel cell Ferrel cell Hadley cell Ferrel cell Polar cell The Physical Environment Image from NASA.

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Presentation on theme: "Ferrel cell Ferrel cell Ferrel cell Hadley cell Ferrel cell Polar cell The Physical Environment Image from NASA."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ferrel cell Ferrel cell Ferrel cell Hadley cell Ferrel cell Polar cell The Physical Environment Image from NASA

2 Joseph Grinnell Grinnellian Niche  “Habitat” “The niche relationships of the California Thrasher” (1917) “The ultimate distributional unit within which each species is held by its structural and instinctive limitations" (1928) The Ecological Niche Photos of Grinnell and California Thrasher from Wikimedia Commons

3 Charles Elton Eltonian Niche  “Profession” or “Role” “The status of an animal in its community… its place in the biotic environment, its relations to food and enemies" (1927) The Ecological Niche Photo of Elton from http://people.wku.edu/charles.smith/chronob/ELTO1900.htm

4 Dr. Seuss The Ecological Niche And NUH is the letter I use to spell Nutches Who live in small caves, known as Niches, for hutches. These Nutches have troubles, the biggest of which is The fact there are many more Nutches than Niches. Each Nutch in a Niche knows that some other Nutch Would like to move into his Niche very much. So each Nutch in a Niche has to watch that small Niche Or Nutches who haven’t got Niches will snitch. Image from Geisel, T. S. (1955) On beyond zebra, by Dr. Seuss

5 G. Evelyn Hutchinson Hutchinsonian Niche = “n-dimensional hypervolume” “an n-dimensional hypervolume… defined on axes [representing] all of the ecological factors relative to [the species]… [and] every point in which corresponds to a state of the environment which [permits]… the species… to exist indefinitely” (1958) The Ecological Niche Photo of Hutchinson from http://peabody.yale.edu/collections/archives/biography/g-evelyn-hutchinson Figure image from http://www.eplantscience.com/index/general_zoology/environment_and_the_niche.php

6 Let’s consider the concept of niche – If I knew what it meant I’d be rich. Its dimensions are n, But a knowledge of Zen Is required to fathom the bitch. [Credited to Grant Cottam & David Parkhurst in Hurlbert (1981)] The Ecological Niche as a Metaphor Image from https://themerelyreal.wordpress.com/tag/words/

7 The Ecological Niche as a Metaphor With your concept of niche I agree But there’s clearly one hitch I can see. You blame the wrong sex For the inherent hex, For the niche is no she, but a he. [Credited to Joy Zedler in Hurlbert (1981)] Image from https://themerelyreal.wordpress.com/tag/words/

8 The Ecological Niche as a Metaphor I’m amazed that a smart woman like Joy Would believe that a niche is a boy; For a niche is elusive, Deceitful, confusive – It’s quite clear it’s a feminine ploy. [Credited to Grant Cottam in Hurlbert (1981)] Image from https://themerelyreal.wordpress.com/tag/words/

9 The Ecological Niche Figure from Bruno et al. (2003) Trends in Ecology & Evolution Why might the fundamental and realized niches differ?

10 Atmospheric environmental conditions at a given time and place Weather Photo of lightning in Western Australia from Wikimedia Commons

11 The long-term, average weather patterns of a given place Climate Climate Diagram from Cain, Bowman & Hacker (2014), Ecological Toolkit 3.1, Fig. A

12 – differential heating & cooling1. Shape of the Earth Major Determinants of Global Climate

13 1. Shape of the Earth Ferrel cell Ferrel cell Ferrel cell Hadley cell Ferrel cell Polar cell – differential heating & cooling results in rising & sinking air masses: Hadley & Ferrel cells Major Determinants of Global Climate Figure from NASA

14 – results in seasons as Hadley & Ferrel cells move latitudinally, tracking changes in the position of the solar equator with a slight time lag 2. Revolution of the Earth around the Sun on a tilted axis 1. Shape of the Earth Northern Hemisphere summer – Northern Hemisphere is tilted towards the Sun Northern Hemisphere winter – Southern Hemisphere is tilted towards the Sun Major Determinants of Global Climate Figure from Wikimedia Commons

15 2. Revolution of the Earth around the Sun on a tilted axis 1. Shape of the Earth Major Determinants of Global Climate

16 2. Revolution of the Earth around the Sun on a tilted axis 1. Shape of the Earth Major Determinants of Global Climate

17 3. Rotation of Earth on Earth’s axis Creates Coriolis effect (actually conservation of momentum) Currents in air and water are deflected right in N. Hemisphere and left in S. Hemisphere 2. Revolution of the Earth around the Sun on a tilted axis 1. Shape of the Earth Major Determinants of Global Climate

18 3. Rotation of Earth on Earth’s axis Creates Coriolis effect (actually conservation of momentum) Currents in air and water are deflected right in N. Hemisphere and left in S. Hemisphere 2. Revolution of the Earth around the Sun on a tilted axis 1. Shape of the Earth Major Determinants of Global Climate Figure from NASA

19 Albedo – solar radiation that a surface reflects Local-Scale Influences on Climate Cain, Bowman & Hacker (2014), Fig. 2.19 Sensible heat loss – exchange of kinetic energy via conduction (molecules in direct contact) or convection (air movement) that involves a temperature change Latent heat loss – involves no change in temperature, e.g., phase shift of H 2 O

20 Rainshadow Local-Scale Influences on Climate Cain, Bowman & Hacker (2014), Fig. 2.18

21 … and modified by Coriolis effects Ocean Currents are Driven by Surface Winds Cain, Bowman & Hacker (2014), Fig. 2.11

22 Upwelling – brings cold, nutrient-rich water to the surface Local-Scale Influences on Marine Conditions Upwelling animation from Wikimedia Commons

23 Marine Biological Zones Cain, Bowman & Hacker (2014), Fig. 3.16 Increasing pressure Decreasing temperature Decreasing light availability

24 Stream order influences energy, nutrients, and other conditions Rivers & Lotic Zonation Cain, Bowman & Hacker (2014), Fig. 3.13 Temperate zone river systems Decrease in particle size in stream bed Allochthonous input of detritus decreases relative to volume of water

25 Rivers & Lotic Zonation Cain, Bowman & Hacker (2014), 3.14 Location within a given section also determines conditions

26 Lake stratification & turnover Lakes & Lentic Zonation Cain, Bowman & Hacker (2014), Fig. 2.22 Increasing pressure Decreasing temperature Decreasing light availability

27 E.g., El Niño Southern Oscillation Images from Wikimedia Commons Year-to-Year and Decadal Climate Variation Normal yr El Niño yr La Niña yr

28 Milankovitch Cycles Long-Term Climate Variation Cain, Bowman & Hacker (2014), Fig. 2.26 A & B Orbital Eccentricity Periodicity  100,000 yr Orbital Obliquity Periodicity  41,000 yr

29 Milankovitch Cycles Long-Term Climate Variation Cain, Bowman & Hacker (2014), Fig. 2.26 C Orbital orientation Periodicity  22,000 yr

30 pH Chemical Environment Kelly et al. (2013) Global Change Biology, Fig. 4 E.g., development – sea urchin development suffers under elevated pH (resulting from elevated pCO 2 ) pH level p < 0.001

31 Oxygen Chemical Environment Projecto-Garcia et al. (2013) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Fig. 1b. E.g., biochemical phenotype – hemoglobin’s O 2 binding affinity increases with the average elevation range of Andean hummingbird species Elevation Hb-O 2 affinity (Increasing)

32 Salinity / Salt Availability Bravo et al. (2010) Journal of Tropical Ecology, Fig. 1 Chemical Environment Dry seasonWet season Season p = 0.48 Site p < 0.001 Season x Site Interaction p = 0.62 E.g., behavior – frugivorous bats seek sodium at mineral licks in southeastern Peru


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