Presentation on theme: "THE BIG PICTURE The British victory in the French and Indian War (1754-1763) brought additional lands in the West, but significant war debts as well. To."— Presentation transcript:
1 THE BIG PICTUREThe British victory in the French and Indian War ( ) brought additional lands in the West, but significant war debts as well. To pay this debt, the British parliament moved away from salutary neglect in favor of more strict colonial control. Colonial protest to new taxes, restrictions on colonial self-government, and influence from the European Enlightenment led to a colonial Declaration of Independence in During the American Revolution, the overmatched colonists found a leader in George Washington and badly-needed French assistance after the Battle of Saratoga. When the war ended, the Treaty of Paris in 1783 brought independence and the formation of the United States.
2 Essential Question:How was 1763 (the year the French and Indian War ended) a “turning point” in the relationship between England & her American colonies?
3 WHY WERE THE FRENCH UNSUCCESSFUL IN CREATEING A STRONG SETTLER SOCIETY? 1) Primary activity was Religious2) Government only saw minimal returns from colonization3) Forbade emigration of religious dissidents –Huguenots.4)Unable to support and fund additional exploration
5 French & English Colonial Wars The French & Indian War changed EVERYTHING between England & the coloniesThe introduction of new English mercantilist policies changed its economic & military attitude towards the colonies:England increased protective tariffs & trade regulations so the colonies worked for motherlandIf that failed, go to war with economic rivals & get the colonists to fight tooThese regulations began with the Navigation Acts in 1660New mercantilist policies after the French & Indian War led to colonial resentment & the American RevolutionMercantalism was an economic theory (Scientific/ Enlightened thought) / tool which regulated colonial activity and re-integrated colonies into the mother country/ Government was responsible for overseeing, equipping and managing natural resourcesWhat about managing trade?Nations can defend themselves economically HOW? Tariffs are used to protect domestic activity and keep currency in the coutnry and out of the pockets of your enemiesUSED TO TARGET RIVALSPredictable tax revenueImpose tariffsOrganize colonies to serve the mother country (put the colonies to work for you)If this fails make the colonies join your war effortsBritish Americans were increasingly drawn into European conflicts in the 18th Century with France & Spain
6 French & English Colonial Wars A series of European conflicts involving England & France spilled over into colonial North America:King William’s War ( )Queen Anne’s War ( )War of Jenkins’ Ear ( )King George's War ( )These wars were based on mercantilist competition & had little political significance, but…King William's War (1688–97, also known as the Second Indian War and Castin's War) was the North American theater of the Nine Years' War (1688–97, also known as the War of the Grand Alliance or the War of the League of Augsburg). It was the first of six colonial wars (see the four French and Indian Wars, Father Rale's War and Father Le Loutre's War) fought between New France and New England along with their respective Native allies before Britain eventually defeated France in North America in 1763.For King William's War, neither England nor France thought of weakening their position in Europe to support the war effort in North America. New France and the Wabanaki Confederacy were able to thwart New England expansion into Acadia, whose border New France defined as the Kennebec River in southern Maine. According to the terms of the Treaty of Ryswick, the boundaries and outposts of New France, New England, and New York remained substantially unchanged.Queen Anne's War (1702–1713), as the North American theater of the War of the Spanish Succession was known in the British colonies, was the second in a series of French and Indian Wars fought between France and England, later Great Britain, in North America for control of the continent. The War of the Spanish Succession was primarily fought in Europe. In addition to the two main combatants, the war also involved numerous Native American tribes allied with each nation, and Spain, which was allied with France. It was also known as the Third Indian War.The War of Jenkins' Ear was a conflict between Great Britain and Spain that lasted from 1739 to 1748, with major operations largely ended by Its unusual name, coined by Thomas Carlyle in 1858, refers to an ear severed from Robert Jenkins, captain of a British merchant ship. The severed ear was subsequently exhibited before Parliament. The tale of the ear's separation from Jenkins, following the boarding of his vessel by Spanish coast guards in 1731, provided the impetus to war against the Spanish Empire, ostensibly to encourage the Spanish not to renege on the lucrative asiento contract (permission to sell slaves in Spanish America). After 1742 the war was subsumed by the wider War of the Austrian Succession involving most of the powers of Europe. Peace arrived with the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748.- King George’s War King George's War (1744–1748) is the name given to the operations in North America that formed part of the War of the Austrian Succession (1740–1748). It was the third of the four French and Indian Wars. It took place primarily in the British provinces of New York, Massachusetts Bay, New Hampshire, and Nova Scotia. Its only successful large-scale action was a major expedition organized by Massachusetts Governor William Shirley that successfully besieged the French fortress of Louisbourg in The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle that ended the war in 1748 restored Louisbourg to France, and failed to resolve any outstanding territorial issues. While the British colonies were militarily superior to New France, a lack of colonial unity & French alliances with Native Americans weakened colonial advantages
7 …these wars led to a land frenzy in the 1750s, among French & British colonists Territorial disputes along the Ohio River sparked the French & Indian War
9 This would give the colonists too much power Turning Point: 17541754 proved to be a turning point in American colonial historyIn 1754, English officials & colonists met to discuss Iroquois problems at the Albany CongressBenjamin Franklin proposed the Albany Plan of Union for a coordinated colonial armyThe plan was vetoed by colonial assemblies & ParliamentThis would give the colonists too much powerThe plan was too expensive & would limit each colony’s power to control its own actionsIts failure also caused the Iroquois to break political ties with the English and possibly trade with the French
10 Ben Franklin’s Albany Plan of Union America’s 1st political cartoon
11 Turning Point: 1754In 1754, VA governor sent 22 year old George Washington to protect an Ohio Company claimWashington’s troops were forced to retreat from Fort Duquesne; This clash proved to be the beginning of the French & Indian War
13 The French & Indian War The war went bad for England from 1756 to 1758 The lack of colonial unity & French alliances with Native Americans hurt the British army from 1756 to 1758In 1757, Prime Minister William Pitt took command of the military:Used well-qualified generalsHad a “blank check” to fund the war in America, India, & EuropeIn 1758, the tide of the war turned; England won by 1760
14 1758-1761 The Tide Turns for England By 1761, Spain became an ally of France
15 Treaty of ParisFrance—lost Canada, most of its empire in India, & claims to lands east of the Mississippi RiverSpain—got all French lands west of the Miss. River, New Orleans, but lost Florida to EnglandEngland—gained all French lands in Canada, exclusive rights to the Caribbean slave trade, & total control of India
16 North America after 1763America in 1750America in 1763
17 How was 1763 a “turning point” in the British-colonial relationship?
18 Perceptions of the War Colonial views: Colonies could be very strong when they worked togetherNewly gained frontier presented opportunities for wealth & landColonists learned how to fightEnglish views:Americans were slow to organize & balked at helping raise money even to protect their own lands
19 British-American Tensions ColonialsBritishFighting MethodsIndian-style guerilla attacksMarching in formationMilitary OrganizationMilitias led by captainsBritish officers in charge of colonialsFinancesResistant to rising taxesColonists should help pay for their own defense
20 Effects of the War on Britain? The war increased England’s colonial empire in North AmericaBut, the Pitt’s “blank check” greatly enlarged England’s debtBritain’s contempt for the colonials created bitter feelingsAs a result, English leaders felt that a major reorganization of its American empire was necessary!
21 Effects of the War on Americans? The 1760s were an affluent & optimistic “post-war” period:The French & Indian War united the colonists against a common enemy for the 1st timeMost colonists considered themselves proud members of England’s empire with little (if any) thought of independence
23 Parliamentary Sovereignty In 1760, George III became king & began a new colonial attitude: Parliamentary SovereigntyEnglish officials assumed that Parliament must have ultimate authority over ALL laws & taxesThe colonists tried to reserve the colonial authority for their own legislaturesSuspicions in colonies & England that George wished to enlarge his powers (appt of chief minister Bute & others)Bute was appointed Chief Minister of England because he got along with George, no other reason. Parliament was furious. Eventually Bute resigned & George was fickle in his appointments—often changing chief ministers leaving England with no clear plan for gov’t. Left England in precarious state & colonies largely ignored during this time.3
24 “No Taxation Without Representation” The colonists assumed that their assemblies were quasi-equal to Parliament because they had no Parliamentary representativesBritish officials countered with “virtual representation” argumentThe colonists insisted that only their colonial assemblies could tax AmericansParliament represents ALL British citizens no matter where they live4
25 Two Theories of Representation What was the extent of Parliament’s authority over the colonies?How could the colonies accept the decisions of Parliament when they did not have representation in that governmental body?Absolute?OR Limited?
26 Eroding the Bonds of Empire After the Seven Years War, everyone expected George to remove British army from America (French were no longer a threat)But…this large, expensive army was not removedBritish citizens were not happy because they had to pay for itColonists doubted the army’s ability to defend against Indians6
27 Pontiac’s WarBackcountry natives banded together to repel white frontier settlers during Pontiac’s War:Indian successes exposed the British army’s weaknessAttacks revealed desperation of Native Americans after the withdrawal of their French alliesColonials took matters into their own hands (Paxton Boys in PA)English colonists flooded across the Appalachian Mountains:“There’s all this land & no French!!”(Senecas, Ottowas, Miamis, Creeks, Cherokees)
28 Pontiac’s Rebellion, 1763 Fort Detroit Chief Pontiac led the Ottawa & other tribes against colonists due to:The flood of colonists into Ohio CountryBritish “gifts” of smallpox-infected blankets from Fort Pitt
29 Retaliatory attacks by frontier colonists (like the Paxton Boys in Pennsylvania) were common
30 The Proclamation of 1763In response to Pontiac’s War, the British government established the Proclamation Line of 1763:This law forbade colonists from settling across the Appalachian Mountains (for their own protection)Americans viewed the line as an obstruction to their “legitimate economic development”
32 “Virtuous” citizens must fight tyranny New Political IdeasAll gov’ts are susceptible to corruption, tyranny, & intrusion upon citizens’ libertyThe introduction of Parliamentary sovereignty contradicted England’s original policy of salutary neglectThe influx of new political ideas of the European Enlightenment began to impact colonial thought (especially those of John Locke)While no colonists were thinking of independence by 1763, many became committed to “natural rights” & opposed to “tyranny”“Virtuous” citizens must fight tyranny5
34 Rule Britannia?Despite the mounting tensions between the English government & American colonists by 1763, most Americans were loyal “brothers” to England due of:a shared British culturedependence upon British consumer goodsshared nationalism after British military victories against France