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Captain Robert D Holliday FRAeS 2nd September 2011

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1 Captain Robert D Holliday FRAeS 2nd September 2011
Separating Industry Issues From Safety Issues Managing Inter–Organisational Collaboration when Implementing a Fatigue Risk Management System (FRMS) Captain Robert D Holliday FRAeS 2nd September 2011

2 Contents Collaboration Aims Culture Trust Politics and Power

3 You may have to jump into bed with someone you don’t like…’
Collaboration An oil company manager once said of collaboration: You may have to jump into bed with someone you don’t like…’

4 ‘Sleeping with the enemy’

5 Safety Perspective Sleep Family Commute Exercise Lifestyle Fit to Fly
Medication Diet Health

6 Union Representative Perspective
Pay Hours Safety Holiday Union member Lifestyle Negotiation Agreements Suspicion

7 Management Representative Perspective
Productivity Safety Compliance Efficiency Employee Operational Integrity Power Politics Industrial Relations

8 Crew Scheduling Perspective
Software Safety Bid Satisfaction Flight Time Limitations Crewed Aeroplane Standby cover Operational continuity Crew Establishment Disruption management

9 Collaboration Practitioner-generated themes accountability common aims
culture communication and language democracy and equality Practitioner-generated themes power working processes trust commitment and determination Risk compromise resources Types of themes in collaboration practice Managing to Collaborate – Huxham & Vangen, 2005

10 Crew Scheduling Perspective
Power Aims Collaboration Culture Trust Politics

11 Collaboration (One participant’s perspective) Explicit Assumed Hidden
Collaboration aims The purpose of the collaboration by definition these are perception of joint aims and so cannot be hidden Organisation aims What each organisation hopes to gain for itself via the collaboration Individual aims What each individual hopes to gain for him/herself via the collaboration A framework for understanding aims in collaboration Managing to Collaborate – Huxham & Vangen, 2005

12 ‘Collaborative Thuggery’

13 Managing Aims Superordinate Goals ‘Improve Safety’ ‘Big Society’
SMART goals Specific, Measurable, Agreed, Realistic, Time bound Goal Commitment/Rejection

14 Managing Aims Empathy Box Positive Outcomes Negative Outcomes Goal
Commitment ? Rejection

15 Managing Aims Integrity and Accessibility Beware of ‘Goals Gone Wild’
Unintended consequences E.g. Ford Pinto Goals Gone Wild (Ordenez et al 2009)

16 Levels of Culture Artifacts Espoused Beliefs and Values
Visible organisational structures and process (hard to decipher) Espoused Beliefs and Values Strategies, goals, philosophies (espoused justifications Underlying Assumptions Unconscious taken-for-granted beliefs, perceptions, thoughts, and feelings... (ultimate source of values and action Levels of Culture Organizational Collaboration – E.H. Schein, 2011

17 Managing Culture Underlying Assumptions
‘Prescriptive rules have worked till now’ ‘Crew will use this to work less’ ‘Management will use this to increase productivity’ ‘It’s legal’

18 Managing Trust The trust Building Loop

19 ‘‘It is unnecessary for a prince to have all the good qualities I have enumerated, but it is very necessary to appear to have them’’ Niccolo Machiavelli, 1532

20 Managing Politics and Power
‘As organisations are manifestly social entities, power and politics are ubiquitous elements in their make up. Often used synonymously, they are also inherently interwoven and as such are treated in many ways as inseparable issues.’ (Di Domenico, 2011)

21 Managing Politics and Power
Power – Making people do things they otherwise wouldn’t Buy in is more sustainable Power associated with the purse Power is distributed in various forms

Collaboration EXTREME EXTREME Seek enough agreement INTERMEDIATE POSITIONS articulate clear, common agreed aims as a first step get on with joint task without agreeing aims first Seek common ground provides direction to guide joint action difficult to reach agreement so action may never happen EXTREME immediate joint action lack of direction REFORMULATED EXTREME articulate clear compatible aims Tensions in managing aims in collaborative settings Managing to Collaborate – Huxham & Vangen, 2005

23 Top Ten tips for Collaborating
(Huxham and Vangen, 2005) 1. See the collaborative advantage 2. Budget more time than you think 3. Remember there will be different agendas round the table 4. Set small achievable goals to start with to build trust 5. Communicate 6. Remember each member will have different constraints that may cause tensions

24 Top Ten tips for Collaborating
(Huxham and Vangen, 2005) 7. Try to establish that members are able to participate autonomously 8. Recognise that power is important and that each member has power from a different source 9. Sometime you will facilitate and sometimes direct 10. Be persistent, apply high energy levels, total commitment and nurturing and the collaboration will be successful

25 Conclusion Perseverance Energy Commitment Time
All required for a successful collaboration

26 Thank You

27 References References
Huxham, C., Vangen, S. (2010) “Managing to collaborate”, Oxon, Routledge. Schein, Edgar. The Levels of Culture. Source: Organisational Culture and Leadership Jossey-Bass. Di Domenico, M, Vangen, S, Winchester, N, Kumar Boojihawon, D and Mordaunt, J (2011) ORGANIZATIONAL COLLABORATION Themes and issues. Oxon, Routledge, Goal setting: A five-step approach to behaviour change Gary Latham Goals gone wild: The systematic side effects of overprescribing goal setting Lisa Ordóñez, Maurice Schweitzer, Adam Galinsky and Max Bazerman The Prince Niccolò Machiavelli (translated and edited by W.K. Marriott) Understanding power in organizations Jeffrey Pfeffer The levels of culture Edgar Schein Lukes, S., (2005), Power:A Radical View, B325 Managing across organisational and cultural boundaries (2011), The Open University, Milton Keynes Pinney, R., (2008), Building trusted relationships, Les50ons, B325 Managing across organisational and cultural boundaries (2011), The Open University, Milton Keynes 27

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