Presentation on theme: "Threat and Error Management: the LCC and IATA Experience"— Presentation transcript:
1 Threat and Error Management: the LCC and IATA Experience Joey AncaIATA
2 OverviewRegional and International Aviation- the Good News and Bad NewsThe Future in AviationRedefining SAFETYExperience with Low Cost CarriersThreat and Error Management (TEM) ToolsCRM in the Countermeasure ContextTEM as a FramworkTake Away and the Culture of Safety
3 World Aviation: Bad News & Good News Air Transport is a USD 400 Billion IndustryIATA combined Fuel Bill for 2005 is USD83 Billion,equal to the GNP of New ZealandWinners and Losers:North America USD 9BAfrica USD 150MLatin America Europe USD 1.4BAsia USD 2.6BMiddle East USD 100MSafety: 1.8 Billion flew in 2004; 428 Fatalities (similar to1945 figures where 9 million people traveled by airWorld Aviation: Bad News & Good NewsGlobal Turmoil driven by:Fuel CostsLegacy vs Low Cost CarriersImbalanced Taxationby GovernmentsBisignani, G (2005) State of the Air Transport Industry. IATA.
4 Asia-Pacific: Bad News, Good News High Growth Markets attracting rapid foreigninvestments (China, India, Middle East)Asia Pacific Airlines reported US$ 5B profits (2004)India to require trained staff each yearover next 5 yearsDemand for pilots to exceed factor of threein next 5 years; Salary bill for pilots up by 30-40%India placed orders of 190 aircraft in lastParis Air Show; number expected to escalateto aircraft by 2010Regional Issues driven by:Fuel CostsAirline RestructuringInadequate RegulatorySystemsHarbison, Peter (2005). Indian Subcontinent & Middle East Aviation & Tourism Summit
6 Future Transformation: the Jetsons Affordability of Micro Jets to a larger segment of EntrepreneursIncreased Capability of distal and agile Air Traffic ControlIncreased vulnerability of Situational AwarenessDevolution of Safety Management Systems to micro usersNeed for Global Equipage harmonization to counteract present differentiationThe Future is ScaryBaker, D (2005) NGATS FAASwinburne University of Technology
8 Redefining Safety for an Organisation to Reflect Reality LatentConditionsRedefining Safety for an Organisation to Reflect RealitySafety (Middle English, saufte)The state of being safe from undergoing or causing hurt, injury or lossA billiard shot made with no attempt to score or so as to leave the balls in an unfavorable position for the opponentThe problem is…a state of safety does not exist 100% of the TimeThreatsViolationError
9 Safety is a Measure of Organisational Resistance to RISK. LatentConditionsSAFETYSafety is a Measure of Organisational Resistance to RISK.Safety (Middle English, saufte)Dynamic protections from mishapsInterventions for system integrity and complianceCreative “buffering” for latent conditions…instead of a harm-free STATE,RiskViolationError
10 Threat and Error Management Tools Restating (CRM) as the Countermeasures to threats, errors and undesired equipage statesReinforcing Threat and Error Management (TEM) as a framework
11 The Riddle of the 5 Daughters Mary’s Parents had 5 DaughtersTheir names were:MaraMareMariMaro…What is the name of the fifth daughter?
12 6th Generation? The Summits of CRM 5th Generation- Error Management Ubiquity of Human ErrorManage Errors by Avoidance/Trapping/MitigationThe Summits of CRM4th Generation-Integrated CRMCRM embedded in procedures/checklistsSpecialized topics eg. AutomationPerformance based CRM3rd Generation-Advanced CRMCRM Integration with technical training/performanceInstructor CRM TrainingIncluded Dispatchers, Flight Attendants, Engineers2nd Generation- Crew Resource ManagementError Chain & Accident CausalityTeambuilding GamesSituational Awareness and Stress Management ConceptsCluster Knowledge (Decision Making, Briefing, etc)1st Generation- Cockpit Resource ManagementBusiness Management orientationInterpersonal Relationships/ Leadership StylesPsychobabble language distant from PilotsThe “Unassertive” Co-pilot
13 Applying the Riddle to Generations of CRM The next generation is not about a new form of CRMIt is about using TEM as a Framework and CRM as a training countermeasure tool—Maru does not exist, but Mary doesIt is about going back to the foundation of flying operations—the management of operational threats and errors
14 Threat and Error Management (TEM) TEM training is both a framework of CRM as well as a detour back to CRM Beginnings—a training tool to manage Human ErrorThe TEM Model—outlines propagation and breach of Human Error (Threat-Error-Undesired Equipage State-Incident)Appropriately positions CRM as a set of Countermeasures in managing Threats and Errors
15 The IATA TEM Program Positions TEM as a context of CRM CRM Skill Training as the set of countermeasures to manage threats and errorsIncludes a Train-the-Trainer component to critique the delivery of CRM Programs suited to local conditions
20 Managing Threats and Errors: the TEM Solution Ensure competency training onCRM CountermeasuresCountermeasuresError AvoidanceThreat ManagementError ManagementUndesired EquipageState ManagementThe following CRM skills represent some, but not all of the types that can be utilized.After introducing each skill set, insert the suggestions from the “what makes a safe pilot” or “CRM is...”Swinburne University of Technology
25 Threat and Error Management Framework CRM Countermeasure Competencies Error AvoidanceThreatThreat ManagementCrew ErrorError ManagementTeam ClimatePlanningExecutionReview /ModifyUndesired EquipageStateUndesired EquipageState ManagementHave a pre-drawn flipchart of this to be posted.Threat and ErrorManagement FrameworkCRM CountermeasureCompetenciesIncidentSwinburne University of Technology