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Migratory Species: A Vision for 2020 Marine Mammals in CMS

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1 Migratory Species: A Vision for 2020 Marine Mammals in CMS
Convention on Migratory Species United Nations Environment Programme Migratory Species: A Vision for 2020 Marine Mammals in CMS

2 Marine Mammals Marine Mammals Cetacea Carnivora Sirenia Dolphin/Whale/
Porpoise Manatee/ Dugong Ursidae Pinnipedia Mustelidae Polar Bear Seal/Sea Lion/Walrus Sea/Marine Otter

3 Cetaceans: Classification
Whales Dolphins Porpoises Cetaceans Baleen Whales Toothed Whales The baleen whales are characterized by baleen, a sieve-like structure in the upper jaw made of keratin, which they use to filter plankton from the water. They are the largest species of whale. The toothed whales have teeth and prey on fish, squid, or both. An outstanding ability of this group is to sense their surrounding environment through echolocation. Number of Cetacea in taxa: ca. 85

4 Cetaceans and CMS Cetaceans are one of the most important
taxonomic groups for CMS Research initiatives: Assessment of populations & impact of by-catch Training of local scientists Conducting field surveys CMS lists 12 species on APP I and 39 species on APP II 2 „binding“ Agreements dealing exclusive-ly with cetaceans ASCOBANS ACCOBAMS 1 Agreement for the conservation of cetaceans in the Pacific Islands Region 1 Agreement is being developed for cetaceans/ manatees of the Atlantic Coast of Africa

5 Dolphins 34 sea dolphins 5 river dolphins Flagship endangered species
 engage public interest in swimway (ecosystem) conservation Hundreds of thousands of dolphins die every year as a result of human induced threats.

6 Whales Whales are those cetaceans which are neither dolphins nor porpoises This often leads to confusion because Orcas (“Killer Whales”) and Pilot whales have “whale” in their name, but are dolphins for the purpose of classification Ambergis: a perfume ingredient from the intestine of sperm whales Some species of large whales are endangered as a result of large-scale whaling during the 19th and 20th centuries: they have been hunted for oil, meat, baleen and ambergris.

7 Porpoises Porpoises are small cetaceans of the family Phocoenidae
Most obvious visible difference from dolphins: flattened, spade-shaped teeth distinct from the conical teeth of dolphins Porpoises, divided into six species, live in all oceans, mostly near the shore Best known is the Harbour Porpoise, which can be found across the Northern Hemisphere Accidental entanglement (by-catch) in fishing nets is the main threat to porpoises today. One of the most endangered cetacean species is the Vaquita, having a limited distribution in the Gulf of California.

8 Threats Fisheries & by-catch Deliberate hunting Chemical pollution
Use of destructive fishing methods Growth of modern commercial fisheries Directly (by-catch) Indirectly (prey depletion) Deliberate hunting Deliberate setting of nets Harpoon hunts Drive hunts Live taking for display Chemical pollution Domestic sewage Industrial discharges Seepage from waste sites Atmospheric fallout Domestic & agricultural run-off Operational discharges from mines & oil rigs Accidents & spills at sea Bio accumulation of toxins  reduced fitness & reproductive success The chemicals that are probably of most concern for dolphins are the persistent organic pollutants including pesticides, such as DDT, and industrial chemicals. These substances enter the marine food chain and accumulate along the chain to the top marine predators. Damage to the reproductive and immune systems of marine mammals is the likely effect of this pollution.

9 Threats Noise pollution and harassment Climate change
Shipping Military activities Fisheries anti-predation devices Air-guns used in seismic testing to find oil & gas deposits Wind farms & tidal turbines Climate change Sea ice changes Higher water temperatures Disruption of marine food chains Habitat loss & degradation Dams Fishing structures Abstraction of water for human use

10 Adverse Human Induced Impacts on Cetaceans CMS Resolution 8.22
CoP of CMS identified ship strikes, marine noise, entanglement & by-catch, pollution, habitat & feeding ground degradation, which pose direct & indirect threats to the conservation of cetacean population urges Parties to integrate cetacean conservation into other policy sectors requests the Secretariat to cooperate with other organisations (IWC, Regional Seas Programmes, Regional Fisheries Management Organisations) to promote the Convention’s aim instructs CMS bodies to draw this resolution to the attention of other relevant intergovernmental organizations (e.g. UNEP) invites Parties to strive to ensure wherever possible that their activities within the scope of this resolution avoid harm to cetaceans

11 ASCOBANS Agreement on the Conservation of Small Cetaceans of the Baltic and North Seas
Concluded in 1991 under the auspices of UNEP/CMS Entry into force: 29 March 1994 Agreement Bodies: Meeting of the Parties (triennial meetings) Advisory Committee (annual meetings) Secretariat (merged with CMS Secretariat on 1 January 2007) Aim of the Agreement: To achieve and maintain a favourable conservation status for small cetaceans in the Agreement Area

12 ASCOBANS Agreement Area
Marine environment of the Baltic and North Seas Range States Estonia Ireland Latvia Norway Portugal Russian Federation Spain Parties Belgium Denmark Finland France Germany Lithuania Netherlands Poland Sweden United Kingdom Extension of Agreement area likely to enter into force during 2007

13 ASCOBANS Species Covered
Any species, subspecies or population of toothed whales (Odontoceti) occurring in the Agreement area, with the exception of the sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) Examples: Harbour Porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) Common Dolphin (Delphinus delphis) Killer Whale (Orcinus orca) Harbour Porpoise: the most common species of small cetaceans in the North Sea and the only native cetacean species in the Baltic

14 ASCOBANS What ASCOBANS Does to Help
ASCOBANS aims to promote close cooperation among Parties with a view to achieving or maintaining a favourable conservation status for small cetaceans A Conservation and Management Plan obliges Parties to engage in Habitat conservation and management Surveys and research Pollution mitigation Public information ASCOBANS also cooperates with: Range States that have not (yet) acceded to the Agreement Relevant IGOs Relevant NGOs

15 ASCOBANS The Baltic Dimension
Only native cetacean species in the Baltic: Harbour Porpoise Only some 600 of these animals remain Urgent action is needed! ASCOBANS has elaborated a Recovery Plan for Baltic Harbour Porpoises (Jastarnia Plan) An Action Plan is also being developed for Harbour Porpoises in the North Sea

16 ACCOBAMS Agreement on the Conservation of Cetaceans of the Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea and Contiguous Atlantic Area Concluded in 1996 under the auspices of UNEP/CMS Entry into force: 1 June 2001 Agreement Bodies: Meeting of the Parties (triennial meetings) Bureau (annual meetings) Secretariat 2 Sub-regional Co-ordination Units Scientific Committee Aim of the Agreement: To reduce threats to cetaceans in Mediterranean and Black Sea waters and improve knowledge of these animals

17 ACCOBAMS Agreement Area
All the maritime waters of the Mediterranean & Black Sea & the Atlantic Area contiguous to the Mediterranean Sea west of the Straits of Gibraltar Riparian States Range States Algeria Bosnia & Her. Egypt Israel Monaco Russian Fed. Turkey United Kingdom Albania Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus France Georgia Greece Italy Lebanon Libya Malta Montenegro Morocco Portugal Romania Slovenia Spain Syria Tunisia Ukraine

18 ACCOBAMS Species Covered
All regular, vagrant & visiting cetacean species occurring in the Agreement area: In the Mediterranean and Black Seas: 21 species (10 are resident) In the Black Sea: 3 species (regularly occurring populations) Examples: Short-beaked Common Dolphin Sperm Whale Risso’s Dolphin Long-finned Pilot Whale Harbour Porpoise: the most common species of small cetaceans in the North Sea and the only native cetacean species in the Baltic

19 ACCOBAMS Conservation Plan
Adoption and Enforcement of national legislation Assessment and management of human-cetacean interactions Habitat protection Research and monitoring Capacity building, collection and dissemination of information, training and education Developing responses to emergency situations

20 ACCOBAMS Guidelines for Commercial Cetacean-watching
ACCOBAMS encourages whale-watching practices that benefit whales and help to sustain a flourishing tourism industry: 2 complete booklets, on guidelines on whale-watching and the development of national stranding networks were published

21 ACCOBAMS WW Activities & Scientific Work
Monitoring of whale-watching in French Mediteranean Sea Diagnosis of whale-watching activities Database (socio-economical and ecological aspects) was created Monitoring & manage the activity Whale-watching in the Mediterranean Sea and oil dependance Literature review on alternative energies Amount of CO2 presently emitted within the Pelagos area by whale-watching vessels will be calculated Working group will consider measures to be tested within Pelagos

22 Pacific Islands Cetaceans MoU Agreement Area
Signatories Covers all populations of cetaceans in the Pacific Islands Region and has 22 Range States and territories, many of which are Small Island Developing States Australia Cook Islands Fed. States of Micronesia Fiji France New Zealand Niue Papua New Guinea Samoa Solomon Islands Vanuatu

23 Pacific Islands Cetaceans MoU
Final version of the MoU was opened for signature at the Pacific Regional Environment Programme (SPREP) Ministerial Meeting in September 2006 9 countries signed the MoU bringing it into immediate effect 2 countries followed & more will sign in the near future MoU has also been signed by CMS, SPREP, IFAW, WDCS and WWF International First meeting of the signatories: Apia, 6 March 2007

24 Pacific Islands Cetaceans MoU
MoU provides a framework for governments, scientists and others to monitor and coordinate conservation efforts Many programmes are already underway and support the MoU’s implementation Countries are standardising the way they report and collect data from stranded cetaceans Studies have been undertaken to look at the interactions between cetaceans and commercial fishing Educational programmes help connect local communities to conservation efforts (inter alia raising awareness) Through the MoU, the Pacific Islands Region seeks to foster cooperation, build capacity & ensure coordinated region-wide conservation for cetaceans & their habitats.

25 West & Central African (East Atlantic) Small Cetaceans and Sirenians Agreement Area
Range States Liberia Mauritania Morocco Nigeria Portugal Sao Tome & Principe Senegal Sierra Leone Spain Togo Shall cover all popula-tions of small cetaceans & sirenians in West African Waters Exact geographical scope has to be determined during W.A.T.C.H. meeting Angola Benin Cameroon Cape Verde Congo Côte d’Ivoire DR Congo Equatorial Guinea Gambia Gabon Ghana Guinea Guinea Bissau

26 West & Central African (East Atlantic) Small Cetaceans and Sirenians CMS Activities
Several projects aimed at improving the knowledge on cetacean populations, developing capacities for the study of cetaceans and raising awareness of threats on them have been supported by CMS in recent years in Senegal, the Gambia, Ghana and Togo. CMS-sponsored workshop “Conservation and Management of Small Cetaceans of the African Coast” held in Guinea in 2000 Two major objectives: A briefing on the biology and conservation aspects of small cetaceans and other aquatic mammals of West Africa Generate recommendations which could lead to the development of a Regional Action Plan for the conservation of small cetaceans of West Africa

27 West & Central African (East Atlantic) Small Cetaceans and Sirenians Agreement Development (I)
Res. 7.7 supports the development of an appropriate CMS instrument on small cetaceans and sirenians in West & central Africa pursuant to Rec. 7.3 First W.A.T.C.H. meeting scheduled for October 2007 (hosted by Canary Islands) Scientific Symposium (1 day) Training Workshop on Whale-watching (1 day) Negotiation of Action Plan and Agreement (3 days) West African Talks on Cetaceans and their Habitat

28 West & Central African (East Atlantic) Small Cetaceans and Sirenians Agreement Development (II)
Scientific Symposium: open to governments, institutions, NGOs and private sector to discuss threats and challenges for the conservation of small cetaceans & sirenians in the region Training Workshop on Whale-watching: whale-watching capacity building workshop to present and discuss best practices in the region and worldwide (include whale-watching tour for participants) Negotiation session: of the draft Agreement & action plans: session will include Range States and observers

29 The “Year of the Dolphin” 2007
CMS, together with ACCOBAMS, ASCOBANS and WDCS have declared 2007 the “Year of the Dolphin” UN, Governments, NGOs and the private sector (TUI) are building a strong alliance to achieve a common objective: to protect wild dolphins & create an ocean home safe from harm Activities: Outreach and Communication Promotion Education Agreement Development Science

30 The “Year of the Dolphin” 2007
Launch of YoD: 17 September in Monaco during celebration of 10th birthday of ACCOBAMS New partners and supporters can join the initiative through CMS is contacting all Governments to stimulate action Government supporters: Australia, Belgium, Germany, Italy, Kenya, Monaco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Spain and ?

31 Sirenians: Classification
Dugongidae Trichechidae West Indian Manatee African Manatee Amazonian Manatee Dugong

32 Sirenians and CMS CMS lists the
Dugong, West Indian Manatee, African Manatee and the Amazonian Manatee in its Appendix II The West Indian Manatee is also listed on Appendix I (populations between Honduras & Panama) A CMS Agreement is being developed for small cetaceans and sirenians of the Atlantic Coast of Africa (s.a.) A Dugong MoU/Agreement is being developed (ranges from the coast of East Africa to the Western Pacific Ocean)

33 Dugong MoU/Agreement The three manatee species and the Dugong are endangered species. All of them are vulnerable to extinction from habitat loss and other negative impacts related to human population growth and coastal development. First and Second Dugong Range State Meetings have endorsed a final MoU proposal including a conservation and management plan (CMP) to conserve the Dugong Text of the MoU/Agreement and CMP are now open for final consideration CMS will coordinate with Range States to make arrangements for signing the MoU and to hold the first meeting of Signatories (tentative September 2007)

34 Dugong MoU/Agreement MoU is designed to facilitate national level and transboundary actions that will lead to the conservation of Dugong populations and their habitats Associated CMP provides basis for focused species and habitat-specific activities, coordinated across the Dugong’s migratory range MoU and CMP  primary platform for conservation actions in all of the waters of coastal & archipelagic States of the Indian Ocean, East Asia, and western Pacific Ocean, as well as their adjacent seas

35 Carnivora: Classification
Ursidae Pinnipedia Mustelidae Polar Bear Sea Otter Marine Otter Seal Sea Lion Walrus

36 Carnivora and CMS CMS lists in its Appendix I: Marine Otter, Southern River Otter Mediterranean Monk Seal CMS lists on Appendix II: South American Fur Seal South American Sea Lion Common Seal (only Baltic and Wadden Sea populations) Grey Seal (only Baltic Sea populations) 1 Agreement dealing exclusively with Wadden Sea Seals The Seal Management Plan also includes the Grey Seal An Action Plan elaborated for the Conservation of the Eastern Atlantic Monk Seal


38 Wadden Sea Seals Agreement on the Conservation of Seals in the Wadden Sea
Signed in 1990 under the auspices of UNEP/CMS Entry into force: 1 October 1991 Aim of the Agreement: Agreement Structure: To cooperate closely in achieving and maintaining a favorable conservation status for the common seal population It is an irreplaceable component of the Wadden Sea and an important indicator of its environmental health

39 Wadden Sea Seals Agreement Area
Parties: Denmark Germany Netherlands Trilateral conservation area is situated within the Wadden Sea Area Consists of The areas under Key Planning Decision Wadden Sea (Netherlands) The Wadden Sea national parks and The protected areas under the Nature Conservation Act seaward of the main dike The brackish water limit including the Dollard (Germany) The Wildlife and Nature Reserve Wadden Sea (Denmark)

40 Wadden Sea Seals Species & Threats
Common seal: most numerous native marine mammal species in the Wadden Sea: ca. 10,000 individuals Diseases: severe outbreaks in 1988 and 2002 of phocine distemper claimed the lives of seals in Northern Europe 20,000 seals in the North Sea (51% of the estimated population) Disturbance through human activities (types of recreation, hunting and commercial fisheries) Marine pollution Habitat destruction (through dredging, the construction of dikes and dams)

41 Wadden Sea Seals Seal Management Plan
Plan covers the Wadden Sea stock of the Common seal and is extended to cover the 2 breeding stocks of the Grey seal Plan specifies the actions in the following areas Conservation and management measures regarding habitats Pollution and wardening Research and monitoring Taking and exemptions of taking Public information Overall aim of the Work Plan To restore and maintain viable stocks and a natural reproduction capacity, including improved survival rates among juvenile Common and Grey seals

42 Mediterranean Monk Seals Distribution Area
Range States Algeria Cyprus (France) Greece Mauritania Morocco Portugal (Senegal) Spain Turkey Western Sahara Former range: Mediterranean and Black Seas, the Atlantic coast of North West Africa, Cape Verde, the Canaries, Madeira and the Azores Only fragmented pockets around the coast of Greece & Turkey, and isolated sites in North Africa, Mauritania and the Madeira archipelago Occasionally individuals are reported as far away as the French Atlantic coast and Senegal

43 Mediterranean Monk Seals Species & Threats
Mediterranean Monk Seal is believed to be the world's rarest pinniped and one of the most endangered mammals of the world Entire population estimated: less than 600 individuals (Critically Endangered) Threats: Direct exploitation in the past Deliberate killing Incidental entanglement in fishing gears Destruction or alteration of costal habitat Overexploitation of fisheries Pollution

44 Mediterranean Monk Seals Action Plan for the Conservation of the Eastern Atlantic Monk Seal
Action Plan elaborated & approved at the 8th Meeting of the CoP Plan provides a new focus for monk seal conservation Plan is a guideline that lays down the procedures to implement coordinated actions: It provides a means to combine programs from different states, local and private organizations into effective, efficient, concentrated efforts, which should lead to the recovery of the depleted population of the species Latest Conference on monk seal conservation (2006 in Turkey) aimed at coordinating actions by strengthening common approaches and programmes between the Mediterranean and Atlantic Range States The immediate goal is to stop the decline and, in medium term, to promote recovery

45 South Pacific Cetaceans
CMS Marine Mammal Activities Around the World Agreements – Projects – Year of the Dolphin ASCOBANS Wadden Sea Seals ACCOBAMS Monk Seal Marine Mammal Survey Humpback Dolphin Survey Conference on Marine Mammals Training Course Cetaceans WAFCET Cetaceans Survey Marine Otter Survey Dolphin Survey Workshop on Cetacean Survey Cetaceans & Manatees Workshop on Aquatic Mammals Dugong Franciscana Dolphin Survey South Pacific Cetaceans

46 Marine Mammals CMS Vision for 2020 (I)
Global network of regional agreements Main focus on cetaceans, but can also include Sirenians and Seals (depending on species/region) Flexible instruments: e.g. binding or non binding UN or independent (but with CMS link) delivery through intergovernmental partners e.g. Regional Seas Action oriented: rolling conservation plans, on-line reporting, activities through governments, NGOs & private sector

47 Marine Mammals CMS Vision for 2020 (II)
CMS as global “guardian” or “promoter” of regional network world-wide Promotional and normative activities by CMS e.g. “Year of the Dolphin” Whale-watching guidelines Technical and educational publications Quadrennial “World Whales Conference” linking Conventions, regional network, Governments, scientists, NGOs and wider public Permanent financing mechanisms for whale conservation via (voluntary) tax on whale tourism

48 Marine Mammals – CMS & IWC (Personal View)
Great whales & whaling agreement should be settled by IWC, but not at expense of wider cetacean conservation CMS de jure & de facto, is main global convention for conservation and non-lethal use of small cetaceans (SC) SC are migrating; CMS is a UN body; has already established 3 regional CMS agreements concerning SC; published encyclopaedias on SC; currently running global “Year of the Dolphin” 2007 with strong NGO, UNESCO & commercial support

49 Thank you!

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