Presentation on theme: "Reaction Rates and Equilibrium"— Presentation transcript:
1 Reaction Rates and Equilibrium Chemistry 1 Chapter 19Reaction Rates and Equilibrium
2 19.1 Rates of ReactionRate – a measure of the speed of any change that occurs within an interval of time.Reaction Rate - change in concentration of a reactant or product per unit timeSome reactions go very fast (burning) and others go very slowly (rusting).
3 Collision Theory:In order to react, two or more particles must collide with sufficient energy (called the activation energy) and with the proper molecular orientation.If the colliding particles do not have either of these two prerequisites, no product is formed.
4 Using the graph below, what is the energy of each of the following: The graph above shows changes in energy that occur as a chemical reaction proceeds.To calculate the energy of the reaction, ΔH, use this equation:ΔH = Energy of Products – Energy of ReactantsIn this example, the products have less energy than the reactants. Therefore, ΔH is negative and this is an exothermic reaction.
5 Using the graph below, what is the energy of each of the following: reactants? _______________________products? _______________________activation energy? _______________________activated complex? _______________________ΔH? _______________________80 kJ20 kJ= 20 kJ100 kJ20 – 80= - 60 kJ
6 Activated complex- (also called transition state)- high energy temporary arrangement of atoms that forms when particles collide with sufficient energy.
7 Factors that affect reaction rate: Temperature- Reactions go faster at higher temperatures. Particles have more kinetic energy. More colliding particles have enough energy to overcome the activation energy barrier.
8 Factors that affect reaction rate: Concentration- Increasing the concentration of reactants usually increases the reaction rate. If there are more particles to collide, there should be a greater number of collisions that produce products.
9 Factors that affect reaction rate: Particle size- Increased surface area increases reaction rate. Again, more particles collide.Small particles = large surface area for a given massLarge particles = small surface area for a given mass
10 Factors that affect reaction rate: Catalysts- A catalyst is a substance that speeds up a reaction by lowering the activation energy barrier. It is not a product or reactant and it is not used up or changed itself.