What are Plants? Multicellular eukaryotes Have cell walls made of cellulose Develop from multicellular embyros Carry out photosynthesis
Evolution of Plants Started in water – Evolved from an organism similar to multi-cellular algae living today Mosses Ferns Cone-bearing plants Green algae ancestor Flowering plants Vascular Tissue Seeds Flowers; seeds enclosed in fruit
Nonvascular Plants Called bryophytes Depend on water to reproduce Lack vascular tissue (draw up water by osmosis) Mosses, liverworts, and hornworts
Vascular Plants Have vascular tissue (tissues that conduct water and nutrients throughout the plant) – Xylem: transports water – Phloem: transports sugar
Leaves Is the main photosynthetic organ of most vascular plants Leaves generally consist of: – A flattened blade and a stalk – The petiole, which joins the leaf to a node of the stem
Leaf Anatomy Cuticle – Waxy layer that protects leaf. Epidermis – Outermost layer of cells. Upper and lower. Palisade mesophyll ~ Hot dog shaped cells lined up like Popsicle sticks under the epidermis. Have lots of chloroplasts, and carry out most of the photosynthesis. Spongy mesophyll ~ Rounded, loosely arranged cells under the palisade mesophyll. Spaces between the cells allow oxygen and CO 2 to circulate.
Leaf Anatomy Vein ~ A bundle of phloem and xylem surrounded by protective cells. This vascular tissue carries water to and from the leaf for photosynthesis VEIN
Gas Exchange in Leaves Stomata – Holes in lower epidermis that allow CO 2 to enter and O 2 to leave. Guard cells – Pickle- shaped cells on each side of stoma that open and close the hole.
Turgor Pressure – Plant vocabulary Turgor Pressure – The pressure of water against the inside of plant cell walls. Turgor pressure maintains a plants shape and stiffness. As water is lost, turgor pressure decreases the plant wilts.
Nonvascular Plant Reproduction Mosses produce sperm that must swim to meet the egg. Once egg and sperm meet, a spore is produced. Spores do not have a coat to protect them like seeds do, so they need moisture!
Gymnosperms Gymnosperms – “Naked seeds” Produce seeds in cones Leaves are needle- like Evergreens – don’t shed leaves seasonally. Pines, cedar
Gymnosperm Reproduction 1.The diploid sporophyte generation (pine tree) produces male and female cones (gametophytes) 2.The male cone produces pollen 3.The female cone holds the eggs 4.Pollen travels by the wind to the female cone 5.The pollen and the egg meet and form a seed 6.The seed grows into the sporophyte generation (pine cone)
Angiosperms Angiosperms - “covered seeds” Flowering plants Produce seeds in fruits. Leaves are broad Deciduous – Lose and replace leaves seasonally.
Flowers Flowers are the main reproductive organ of the plant. Flowers produce egg and sperm cells Some flowers are hermaphroditic Parts of the flower eventually become seeds and fruits.
Angiosperm Reproduction 1.The plant produces flowers 2.Flowers contain both male and female structures 3.The male part of the flower releases pollen 4.The pollen is carried by a pollinator to the female part of the flower 5.The pollen lands on the female part and grows a pollen tube 6.The pollen meets the egg and fertilization takes place 7.The egg and sperm make a seed 8.The ovary of the flower becomes a fruit to protect the seed until it is planted
Pollination Process by which pollen is transferred to plants – Wind pollination: pollen is transferred via wind – Animal pollination: pollen is transferred via animals
Seeds and Seed Dispersal Purpose is to protect and provide nutrition for a developing plant embryo Seeds are dispersed by: – Animals (contained in fleshy, nutritious fruits; pass through animals digestive system) – Wind and water (seeds are generally lightweight)
Fruit As angiosperm seeds mature, the ovary walls thicken to form a fruit that encloses the developing seed