2 Thinking Cognition Cognitive Psychologists mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicatingCognitive Psychologistsstudy these mental activitiesconcept formationproblem solvingdecision makingjudgment formation
3 Thinking Concept Prototype mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or peoplePrototypemental image or best example of a categorymatching new items to the prototype provides a quick and easy method for including items in a category (as when comparing feathered creatures to a prototypical bird, such as a robin)
4 ThinkingAlgorithmmethodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problemcontrasts with the usually speedier–but also more error-prone--use of heuristics
5 ThinkingHeuristicsimple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficientlyusually speedier than algorithmsmore error-prone than algorithms
6 S P L O Y O C H Y G Thinking Unscramble Algorithm Heuristic all 907,208 combinationsHeuristicthrow out all YY combinationsother heuristics?
7 Thinking Insight Confirmation Bias Fixation sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problemcontrasts with strategy-based solutionsConfirmation Biastendency to search for information that confirms one’s preconceptionsFixationinability to see a problem from a new perspectiveimpediment to problem solving
8 The Matchstick Problem How would you arrange six matches to form four equilateral triangles?
9 The Matchstick Problem Solution to the matchstick problem
10 Thinking Mental Set tendency to approach a problem in a particular way especially a way that has been successful in the past but may or may not be helpful in solving a new problem
11 Thinking Functional Fixedness tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functionsimpediment to problem solving
12 Heuristics Representativeness Heuristic judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypesmay lead one to ignore other relevant information
13 Heuristics Availability Heuristic estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memoryif instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness), we presume such events are commonExample: airplane crash
14 Thinking Overconfidence tendency to be more confident than correct tendency to overestimate the accuracy of one’s beliefs and judgments
15 Thinking Framing the way an issue is posed how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgmentsExample: What is the best way to market ground beef--as 25% fat or 75% lean?
16 Thinking Belief Bias Belief Perseverance the tendency for one’s preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoningsometimes by making invalid conclusions seem valid or valid conclusions seem invalidBelief Perseveranceclinging to one’s initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited
17 Artificial Intelligence designing and programming computer systemsto do intelligent thingsto simulate human thought processesintuitive reasoninglearningunderstanding language
18 Artificial Intelligence Computer Neural Networkscomputer circuits that mimic the brain’s interconnected neural cellsperforming taskslearning to recognize visual patternslearning to recognize smells
19 Language Language Phoneme our spoken, written, or gestured works and the way we combine them to communicate meaningPhonemein a spoken language, the smallest distinctive sound unit
20 Language Morpheme Grammar in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaningmay be a word or a part of a word (such as a prefix)Grammara system of rules in a language that enables us to communicate with and understand others
21 Language Semantics Syntax the set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given languagealso, the study of meaningSyntaxthe rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language
22 LanguageWe are all born to recognize speech sounds from all the world’s languages100908070605040302010Percentage ableto discriminateHindi t’sHindi-speakingadults6-8months8-1010-12English-Infants from English-speaking homes
23 Language Babbling Stage One-Word Stage beginning at 3 to 4 months the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household languageOne-Word Stagefrom about age 1 to 2the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly in single words
24 Language Two-Word Stage Telegraphic Speech beginning about age 2 the stage in speech development during which a child speaks in mostly two-word statementsTelegraphic Speechearly speech stage in which the child speaks like a telegram-–“go car”--using mostly nouns and verbs and omitting “auxiliary” words
25 Language Summary of Language Development Month (approximate) Stage 4 10122424+Babbles many speech sounds.Babbling reveals householdslanguage.One-word stage.Two-world, telegraphic speech.Language develops rapidly intocomplete sentences.
26 Language Linguistic Determinism Whorf”s hypothesis that language determines the way we think
27 Animal Thinking and Language Gestured Communication
28 Animal Thinking and Language Is this really language?