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Socialization, Social Groups, and Stratification.

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Presentation on theme: "Socialization, Social Groups, and Stratification."— Presentation transcript:

1 Socialization, Social Groups, and Stratification

2 Socialization The process of learning how to participate in a group Begins at infancy Agents of socialization –Family –Peers –Media –Religion –Education –Work

3 Looking Glass Self An image of yourself based on what you believe others think of you People shape themselves based on other people's perception, which leads the people to reinforce other people's perspectives on themselves

4 Self Concept An image of yourself as having an identity separate from others Contains three parts: 1. Self-esteem it is where one makes judgments about his or her self-worth. 2.Stability refers to the organization and continuity of one's self-concept. 3.Self-efficacy is self-confidence. It is specifically connected with one's abilities, unlike self-esteem

5 Social Interactions The process of influencing each other as people relate

6 Significant Other Those people whose reactions are most important to your self concept

7 Social Exchange A voluntary action performed in the expectation of getting a reward in return Social exchange theory states all human relationships are formed by the use of a subjective cost-benefit analysis and the comparison of alternatives. If I help my mom she will give me gas money

8 Coercion Interaction in which individuals or groups are forced to behave a particular way

9 Conformity Behavior that matches the group’s expectations

10 Group Think Self deceptive thinking that is based on conformity to group beliefs and created by group pressure to conform

11 Cooperation Interaction in which individuals/groups combine their efforts to reach a goal

12 Conflict Interaction aimed at defeating an opponent

13 Group/”Cliques” Composed of people who share several features Usually begins in early adolescence Usually consist of five or six people who are homogeneous in age, gender, race, social status, and socioeconomic background During late adolescence, the clique typically dissolves into associated sets of couples, which then remain the primary social unit into and throughout adulthood.

14 Features of a group Frequent contact with each other Similar ways of thinking feeling and behavior Similar reaction to one another’s behavior One or more interests or goals

15 Social Category People who share a social characteristic

16 Social Aggregate People temporarily in the same place at the same time but do not interact or share the same characteristics

17 Mechanical Solidarity People feel connected through similar work, educational and religious training, and lifestyle

18 Organic Solidarity Social cohesion based upon the dependence individuals have on each other in more advanced societies Although individuals perform different tasks and often have different values and interest, the order and very solidarity of society depends on their reliance on each other to perform their specified tasks

19 Status A position a person occupies within a social structure

20 Ascribed Status Position that is neither earned nor chosen but it assigned

21 Achieved Status A position that is earned or chosen

22 Master Status A position that strongly affects most aspects of a person’s life

23 Social Stratification Division of large numbers of people according to power, property, gender and prestige. This applies to nations, societies, sexes and other groups

24 Social Class Segment of society whose members hold similar amounts of resources and share values, norms, and identifiable lifestyles Based on money and material things

25 Income The amount of money received by an individual or group over a specific period of time

26 Wealth Total economic resources held by a person or a group

27 Power The ability to control the behavior of others even against their will

28 Prestige Recognition, respect, and admiration attached to social positions Jobs that pay more, require more education, entail more abstract thought, offer greater autonomy Job prestige brings power- Elite- the top people in corporations, military, politics that make nations major decisions Different occupations have different levels of prestige

29 False Consciousness Adoption of the ideas of the dominant class by the less powerful class

30 Class Consciousness Identification with the goals and interests of a social class

31 Absolute Poverty The absence of enough money to secure life’s necessities

32 Relative Poverty Measure of poverty based on the economic disparity between those at the bottom of society and the rest of society

33 Social Mobility The movement of individuals or groups between social classes

34 Horizontal Mobility A change in occupation within the same social class

35 Vertical Mobility A change upward or downward in occupation status/social class

36 Intergenerational Mobility Class status change from one generation to the next

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