Presentation on theme: "Psychodynamic Theories Presentation"— Presentation transcript:
1 Psychodynamic Theories Presentation Team APSY/405July 5, 2015Monica MorellThis presentation by Team A of the Psychodynamic Theories will privide information on traditional and contemporary psychodynamic theories. We will include the following for each theory: a description of the main propositions and their main components, an analysis of the strengths and limitations and finally an explanation of how these theories are similar a nd differ from one another.
2 Psychodynamics Theories Main Propositions Traditional Psychodynamic theories:Sigmund Freud“Psychoanalysis Theory”Adult personality is largely determined by childhood experiences.Exploration of the unconscious.People motivation is drive by sex or aggression.Carl Jung“Analytical Psychology Theory”Occult PhenomenaCollective unconscious.Archetypes conceptsDevelopment of Personality.Alfred AdlerIndividual Psychology Theory”Optimistic View.Social interest.People motivate by social influences.Individual awareness.Traditional Psychoanalyst theories consist of the job of Sigmund Freud, Alfred Alder, and Carl Jung. Sigmund Freud was the pioneer that first proposed the Psychoanalysis theory. He stated that a person have little or no choice in shaping his personality. Sigmund Freud acquired his knowledge of human personality through his experiences with patients (Feist, F., Feist, G., Roberts, T., 2013, p.19). Furthermore, Freud also believed that behavior is partly controlled by the unconscious part of an individual personality. Freud’s stressed the point that a personality of a person is largely rooted in childhood experiences. Besides, he also assumed that people are born with basic instincts or needs including sex and aggression. On the other hand, Alfred Alder presented an optimistic view of people while resting heavily on the notion of social interest (p.69). Adler pins his theory presenting human beings as socially influenced and with the desire of superiority. Furthermore, he had the notion that behavior is shaped by people’s view of the future, and that they are aware if what they are doing and why they are doing it. Leaning towards other assumptions Carl G. Jung presented the Analytical psychology theory. The Analytical psychology theory dictates occult phenomena influence the lives of everyone (p.102). Furthermore, Jung proposed the idea of collective unconscious based on the assumption that our behavior is motivate by certain emotionally experiences inherited from our ancestors. In addition, Jung believed that personality progresses through a sequence of stages that end in self-realization.Image retrieved form: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/69/Sigmund_Freud_Anciano.jpgImage retrieved fromImage retrieved from
3 Psychodynamics Theories Main Propositions Contemporary Psychodynamics theories“The object relations theory”Mother-child relationshipPro-Sigmund Freud ideals“Psychoanalytic Social Theory”Social and cultureFeminine PsychologyNeurotic trends“Humanistic Psychoanalysis theory”Basic anxietyEvolutionary view of humanity“Post –Freudian Theory”Identity crisisLife cycle approachhttps://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/30/Karen_Horney_1938.jpg/38.jpgThe object relations theory brings to a new perspective the mother – child relationship. The object relations theory of Melanie Klein is known as a descendant of Sigmund Freud. In this theory, Klein stressed the importance of the first 4 to 6 months after birth in a baby life. According to authors Feist, Feist & Roberts (2013), Klein insisted that the infant’s drives are directed to an object (Feist, Feist &Roberts, 2013, p. 140). For instance, the drive can be hunger and the object the mother’s breast. This relationship between the baby and the breast is necessary and functions as a prototype for later relationships. Furthermore, the object relations theory places more emphasis on interpersonal relationships. Moreover, it stressed the intimacy and nurturing of the mother. Last but not least, Klein reinforced human contact and empathy as the prime motive of human behavior (p.143). Karen Horney presents Another important contribution to the contemporary personality's theories. The psychoanalytic social theory was made on the conjecture that social and cultural conditions, especially childhood, influence to shape human personality. According to Horney, if an individual growth without the necessities, like love and affection, being fulfill him or she will suffer from basic anxiety. Furthermore, she explained that basic anxiety itself is not neurosis, but it is the nutritive soil out of which a definitive neurosis may develop at any given time. She called the tendencies of an individual to move toward, against or away from people “neurotic trends”. Her theory has a distinct “Freudian flavor” (p. 170). Horney, disagree with Freud’s ideas on regard women. She stated that psychic differences between men and women are not the result of anatomy rather of cultural and social expectations. Erich Fromm was a theorist’s influence by the work of Karl Marx and Karen Horney. He developed a theory of personality that gives emphasizes the influence of class structure, sociobiological factors, history and economics (p.192). Erich Fromm’s humanistic psychoanalysis theory anticipated that humanity’s separation from the natural world has produced feelings of loneliness and isolation and produced self-awareness. Furthermore, it can be said that Fromm’s basic assumption is that individual personality can be understood only in the light of human history. Besides, he emphasized the differences between humans and the other animals and stated that only human beings are aware of themselves and their existence (p.214). Last but not least, we introduced Erik Erickson as the person who introduced and coined the term identity crisis. His theory is the post- Freudian's theory. His theory purpose was to extend not to refute Sigmund Freud theory. His theory was based on the belief that an individual life a specific psychological struggle contributes to the formation of personality. At the stage of adolescence, the fights take the form of an identity crisis. At this particular point, in an adolescence life his personality will strengthen or it will become weaken (p. 218). Erickson used Freud’s theory as the foundation for his life cycle approach. Erickson’s life cycle method consisted of eight stages depict by psychosexual mode along with the psychosocial crisis.
4 Main ComponentsPsychoanalysis Theory- 1)Our behavior and feeling are affected by unconscious motives. 2)Our behavior and feelings are rooted by childhood experiences. 3)There are three parts of personality; id, ego and super-ego. 4)Personality is shaped and motivated by conflicts at different times in childhood.Analytical Theory- 1) The mind is divided into conscious and unconscious parts. 2)Divided into three parts; ego(unconscious mind), personal unconscious and collective unconsciousIndividual Theory- 1)Based on the humanistic model of man. 2)Holism 3)Field theory 4)Theology 5) The creative selfSigmund Freud developed his theory from collected information to from this approach. There are several main components of this theory. A person’s behavior and feeling are affected by unconscious motives. This means that people do not know why they are doing the things that they are doing. Alos our behavior and feeling are rooted by things that have happened in our childhood. We base our feelings on things that have happened during our childhood, we then remember how we felt during that time and base adult reactions on this. There are three parts of personality according to this theory; id, ego and super-ego. Personality is also shaped and motivated by conflicts that we have had during childhood. The analytical theory is where the mind is divided into conscious and unconscious part. This is then divided into three parts; the ego, personal unconscious, and collective unconscious. The Individual theory is based on the humanistic model of man, which is divided into four other parts. Holism where man is viewed as a unit. Field theory, where a person can only be studied by their movements, actions and relationships. Teleology which is the power to will or believe that people are guided not only by mechanical forces but that they also move toward certain goals. The creative self is the concept where responsibility for the person’s personality is in their own hands.
5 Main Components (contd.) Object-Relations Theory - 1)The mother-child dyad.Psychoanalytic-Social Theory- 1) 8 stages; Trust vs. Mistrust, Autonomy vs. Shame, Initiative vs. Guilt, Industry vs. Inferiority, Ego identity vs. Role confusion, Intimacy vs. Isolation, Generativity vs. Stagnation, Ego Integrity vs. Despair.Post-Freudian Theory- 1) Each stage a psychosocial struggle occurs that leads to personality.Humanistic Theory- 1)Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.The object-relations theory follows the mother-child dyad. This means that the relationship that a child builds with their mother of caregiver is what is going to determine their personality throughout their life. The psychoanalystic social theory goes through 8 stages that are personalities that are deveolped throughout a person’s life starting at birth. Trust vs. Mistrust, Autonomy vs. Shame, Initiative vs. Guilt, Industry vs. Inferiority, Ego identity vs. Role confusion, Intimacy vs. Isolation, Generativity vs. Stagnation, Ego Integrity vs. Despair. The post-Freudian theory extended Freud’s infantile development stages to adolescence, adulthood, and old age. It was suggested that at each stage a specific psychosocial struggle or crisis occurs that contributes to the formation of personality. This was in contrast to the struggle being initiated by psychosexual forces ala Freud. From adolescence on, that struggle takes the form of an identity crisis, a turning point in one’ life, which may either strengthen or weaken personality. The humanistic theory is where Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs comes in. This is where a person goes theough different stages in order to get to their goal of self actualization. There are 5 stages in this. The first is physiological, this is where a person’s basic needs are met like; food, water, and shelter. The next stage is safety. This is where things like employment, health and family are found. The next stage is love/belonging. This is where friendships, family, and sexual intimacy are found. The next stage is esteem. This is where a person’s self-esteem, confidence, and achievement is found. The last stage is self realization. This is where a person’s worth is found. According to Maslow, a person needs to complete all these stages in order to gain self actualization. These are things that humans need.
6 Strength and Weakness of Traditional Psychodynamic FREUD:PSYCHOANALYSIS THEORYStrength: The theory was based primarily on the role of unconscious psychologicalWeakness: Anti- Women PsychologyADLER: INDIVIDUAL PSYCHOLOGYStrength: The theory can be related cross-culturallyWeakness: The theory concepts were not easy to verify or falsifyJUNG:ANALYTIC PSYCHOLOGYStrength: The theory is unique in his approach to link myth, culture, religion, folklore, philosophy and historyWeakness: The theory low in pragmatism, internal dependability and frugality.All the traditional psychoanalysis theories had their strengths and their weekends. First, Freud’s psychoanalytic theory of personality claimed that human behavior was the result of the interaction of three parts of the brain: the id, ego, and superego. The theory was based primarily on the role of unconscious psychological battles in shaping behavior and personality (Feist, J., Feist, G., & Roberts, T., 2013). Some of the strengths of the theory include an in-depth evaluation with a primary focus on the roots of psychopathology. In addition, Freud took gender issues into the discussion because most of the examples address sexuality as one of the drives that plays an important role in human behavior. Because of its focus on the unconscious, there is some explanation to some of the behavior that we are not aware off (Muskingum College, 2015). Second, according to vision.org (2015), Adler named his approach individual psychology for its emphasis on viewing the individual holistically. This approach presents an optimistic understanding of people while focusing on the notion of social interest. Furthermore, the theory can be related cross-culturally. In addition, Adler argued that women should be provided the same chances as men if they were to move past their innate sense of weakness to feelings of ability and personal superiority. Besides, according to Ivey, A., D’Andrea, M., Ivey, M., & Simek-Morgan, L. (2007), Adler’s social interest concept complements the worldview of persons in diverse cultural/racial groups, while encouraging the use of positivism in counseling and psychotherapy. Third, Analytical psychology presented by Carl Jung, is unique in his approach to link myth, culture, religion, folklore, philosophy and history like never before. Furthermore, Jung was able to present new tools to interconnect science and spirituality. Likewise, he was a pioneer regarding the focus of interest in the analytic tradition from early childhood to middle adulthood, from the unconscious to the conscious (Colombo’s, A., 2015).On the other, many weakness on these theories were Pointed out as well. For instance, on the theory of psychoanalysis, a negative point during the research was that some patients are not considered suited for psychoanalysis. In addition, according to Feist, J., Feist, G., & Roberts, T. (2013), a common criticism of Freud is that he did not understand women psychology. As a result, the theory was highly criticized because it was presumed that his theory of personality is oriented towards men. The theory only provides a one sided approach, often ignoring biological, cultural, and social considerations. Some criticism towards the theory of psychoanalysis is that are almost impossible to falsify, and compared with others theories of personality, it leaves us with more answers to questions regarding how people act as they do. Likewise, the theory of Alfred Adler had his share of limitations. First, the concepts were not easy to verify or falsify, basically the same as the psychoanalytic theory of Sigmund Freud. According to Feist, J., Feist, G., & Roberts, T. (2013), Adler’s most important concept is the assumption that present style of life determines early memories rather that the vice versa, which is difficult to verify or falsify. Moreover, one could say that the approach is based on the conclusion that monogamy is the most socially responsible way to marriage and that sex should not precede the marriage commitment while emphasizing in free will and choice (Vision.org, 2015). Last, but not least, the theory of Carl Jung’s weakness includes the lack of clearly spelled helping tools, counseling techniques or psychotherapeutic techniques that are easily accessible to practitioners, while requiring extensive training and supervision. In the analytical approach little effort is aimed at addressing the environmental conditions, injustices and types of cultural oppressions that are known to affect human behavior and healthy psychological functioning (Ivey, A., D’Andrea, M., Ivey, M., & Simek-Morgan, L., 2007). Jung’s theory is low in pragmatism, internal dependability and frugality.
7 Strength and Weakness of Contemporary Psychodynamics theories Klein:OBJECTS RELATIONSTHEORYHORNEY: PSYCHOANALYTICSOCIAL THEORYFROMM: HUMANISTIC PSYCHOANALYSIS THEORYPOST- FREUDIAN THEORYERICKSON:
9 Similarities of Theories: Object Relations and Psychoanalysis ObjectsInternal ObjectsInternalizationFalsificationWhile studying Klein and the Object Relations Theory, I found that there were similarities to Freud’s psychoanalysis theory in her theory (Feist, 2013). Klein agreed with Freud that human beings have innate drives or instincts including a death instinct or drive and a sex drive. She stated that drives must have an object (Klein, 1948)! Klein’s thoughts on internal objects were that the objects have a power of their own. This thought is similar to Freud’s idea of a super ego. Freud’s theory teaches that the child carries the mother and father’s conscience within them. (Feist, 2013). Another similarity that I found between Klein and Freud was in the area of internalizations (ego, super ego, and Oedipus complex). Klein mainly agreed with Freud and psychoanalysis about the super mature ego producing feelings of inferiority and guilt but did not agree with him about the early super ego. Finally, the Object Relations Theory receives a similar critique to that of Freud’s theory, that it suffers from problems with falsification (Feist, 2013).
10 Similarities of Theories Childhood TraumasPleasure Principles googleimage.comEvolutionary View of HumanityPhysiological Needs googleimage.com
11 Differences of Theories Traditional Psychodynamic TheoryContemporary Psychodynamic TheoryFreud’s IdeaTraditional theories focuses more on what is occurring in the unconscious.A combination of ideas from Adler, Jung, Erikson, and Horney and Klein.Contemporary theorist focused more on evolutionary needs.Traditional Psychodynamic Theory is based on Freud’s psychoanalysis approach on personality formation. Contemporary Psychodynamic Theory is based on Freud’s followers approach on personality formation. The contemporary psychodynamic theory agrees with many of Freud's basic ideas but have some objections and have added or altered some parts. Adler's theory was based on his belief that people's behavior was formed by striving for success or superiority and that social interest plays a huge part. He believed that physical deficiencies make people feel inferior and in order to overcome that feeling is striving for success. Jung's theory was developed on the concept that people have two personalities the extroverted and the introverted. The introverts are people who would rather use their internal world of thoughts, dreams, feelings, and fantasies. Extroverts on the other hand prefer the external world of things, people, and activities. Erikson's theory is an extension of Freud's psychoanalysis theory. Unlike Freud, Erikson believed that each developmental stage was important to the formation of personality. He also extended on the psychosexual stages and added the importance of social and historical influence. Horney's theory consisted on the belief that social and cultural conditions shaped a person's personality. This was especially important during childhood. A child must feel loved and have a safe environment in order to live a healthy life. Unfortunately, it doesn't always happen that way and a child develops basic hostility. There are several other’s that form part of the contemporary psychodynamic theory but only a few where mentioned in this slide.Reference:Feist, J., Feist, G., & Roberts, T. (2013). Theories of Personality (8th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
12 Traditional Psychodynamic Theory Researchers and therapists were continually disagreeing with and contesting Freud’s original theories and psychoanalysis in general, but most of the time there were similarities in the new ideas. Karen Horney and her psychoanalytic social theory is just another example of how the traditional and contemporary psychodynamic theories are similar to one another. Horney agreed with Freud that nearly all childhood “traumas” are important in personality development (Feist, 2013). Horney also agreed with Freud and taught that man is ruled by the “pleasure principle,” but she added that we are also ruled by safety and satisfaction (Horney, 1939).Psychoanalysis has taken the evolutionary view of humanity since its beginning, and Erich Fromm takes that view in his Humanistic Psychoanalysis theory (Feist, 2013). As a teacher of humanistic psychoanalysis, Fromm taught that humans are motivated by such physiological needs as hunger, sex, and safety; but they can never resolve their human dilemma by satisfying these animalneeds. Parts of this list of motivators is similar to the traditional functions that Freud held firm to from the founding of his theory of psychoanalysis – sex and aggression.The list of contemporary theories would not be complete without mentioning Erikson’s post-Freudian Theory and Maslow’s Holistic-Dynamic theory (Maslow, 1970). Erikson;s theory included teaching about society’s influence, which is similar to the traditional teaching about the influence of environment. As we move down the contemporary list, we come to the Holistic-Dynamic theory and its first level of motivation, which includes physiological needs (some of the needs that Freud taught were motivators in his earlier teaching).
13 Conclusion Freud Erickson Klein Horner Adler Psychodynamic theories look at the unconscious mind and the role it plays in the development of the personality. We have shown how traditional and contemporary psychodynamic theories have shaped our lives from birth into adulthood. Our presentation has reviewed the main propositions and components their strengths, limitations along with how the theories differ from one another. These Psychodynamic theorists helped us to understand and explain how we relate others consciously and subconsciously which promote our feeling s and behaviors while determining our identities which allow us to build relationships with others.
14 ReferencesColombos, A. G. (2015). Analytical Psychology: The Theory of Carl Jung. Retrieved fromFeist, J., Feist, G., & Roberts, T. (2013). Chapter 5 Klein: Object Relationship Theory. Theories of personality (8th ed.p ). New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.Googleimages.com https://www.google.com/search?q=object+relations+theory&rlz=1C1CHWA_enUS614US614&espv=2&biw=1920&bih=979&Googleimages.com https://www.google.com/search?q=freud&rlz=1C1CHWA_enUS614US614&espv=2&biw=1920&bih=979&source=lnms&tbmGoogleimages.comHorney, K. (1950). Neurosis and human growth: The struggle toward self-realization. New York: Norton. Illinois Valley Community College. (2015). Psychoanalytic Social Theory-Karen Horney. Retrieved fromIvey, A., D'Andrea, M., & Bradford, M., Simek-Morgan, L (2007). Theories of Counseling Therapy. Retrieved from Education. (2015). What isKlein, M. (1948). Contributions to psycho-analysis, 1921–45. London: Hogarth.Maslow, A. H. (1970). Motivation and personality (2nd ed.). New York: Harper & Row.McLeod, S. A. (2007). Psychodynamic Approach. Retrieved fromSulloway, F. J. (1991). Reassessing Freud's case histories: The social construction of psychoanalysis. Isis, 82(2), Vision, Insight and New Horizons. (2015). A Psychology of Change. Retrieved from