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CURRENT AND FUTURE RESEARCH IN CBRN DEFENSE AT THE IAP NAS OF UKRAINE V. Yu. Storizhko Round-table on WMD and Dual-use Expertise/Knowledge Redirection.

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Presentation on theme: "CURRENT AND FUTURE RESEARCH IN CBRN DEFENSE AT THE IAP NAS OF UKRAINE V. Yu. Storizhko Round-table on WMD and Dual-use Expertise/Knowledge Redirection."— Presentation transcript:

1 CURRENT AND FUTURE RESEARCH IN CBRN DEFENSE AT THE IAP NAS OF UKRAINE V. Yu. Storizhko Round-table on WMD and Dual-use Expertise/Knowledge Redirection and Prevention 17-18 April, 2012, Kyiv, Ukraine

2 Accelerator based nano-analytical facilities for material characterization 2

3 2 MeV electrostatic accelerator with analytical end stations (RBS, PIXE, uPIXE, PIGE, ERDA) 3

4 Scanning Nuclear Microprobe Beams: H+, He+ with energy 0.2…2 MeV Resolution: 2 μm with current 100 pA Analytical techniques: μPIXE, μRBS, IBIC 4

5 Detection limits and lateral resolution of some resonant nuclear reactions ElementNuclear reaction Resonance energy (keV) Resonance width (eV) Resolution (nm) Detection limits ppm Hydrogen 1 H( 15 N,αγ) 15 C 1 H( 19 F,αγ) 16 O 6385 6421 6000 45000 4 23 30 100 Lithium 7 Li(p,γ) 8 Be441122002200.15 Boron 10 B(α.p) 13 C 11 B(p,γ) 12 C 11 B(p,α) 8 Be 1507 163 660 18000 5200 300000 30 130 50 5000 50 100 Nitrogen 14 N(α,γ) 18 F15316002 Oxygen 18 O(p,γ) 15 N898 633 2200 2100 5 20 5 Fluorine 19 F(p,γ) 16 O3402300250.1 Magnesium 24 Mg(p,γ) 25 Al223<320,6 Aluminium 27 Al(p,γ) 28 Si405 992 87 105 1,1 10 100 Phosphorus 31 P(p,γ) 28 Si 31 P(p,γ) 32 S 1018 1147 <300 <160 10100 50 Тitanium 48 Ti(p,γ) 49 V1361501020 Chrome 52 Cr(p,γ) 53 Mn10059100 5

6 Accelerator based isotope mass-spectrometer «Tandetron» by HVEE (The Netherlands) 6

7 Some applications of AMS «Tandetron» RatioSensitivityError 14 C/ 12 C3 x 10 -15 0.5 % 13 C/ 12 C1 x 10 -14 0.3 % 10 Be/ 9 Be3 x 10 -14 3 % 26 Al/ 27 Al5 x 10 -14 3 % 129 I/ 127 I1 x 10 -12 5 % Isotopes 14 C Isotopes to define: 10 Be, 26 Al, 129 I Possible fields of investigations Nuclear power engineering and nuclear safety environment monitoring 14 C, 129 I Archeology and geology objects dating 14 C Radiation ecology Chornobyl accident – detection of late radiative effects in the organisms, water circulation 14 C, 10 Be, 129 I Nuclear fuel-processing waste ( 85 Kr, 99 Tc, 129 I) Half-life measurement ( 32 Si, 41 Ca, 44 Ti, 60 Fe, 79 Se, 126 Sn) Fusion plasma temperature measurement ( 26 Al) Neutron flux of Hiroshima bomb ( 36 Cl, 41 Ca, 63 Ni (100 a)) Nuclear safety ( 233 U(1.59 x 105 a), 236 U, 237 Np (2.14 x 106 a), 239 Pu (2.41 x 104 a), 240 Pu (6.56 x 103 a), 242 Pu (3.73 x 105 a), 244 Pu) 7

8 Complementary analytical techniques: X-ray diffractometers and X-ray devices for phase structural characteristics; Scanning electron microscope with electron probe microanalysis; Laser mass-spectrometers; ICP mass-spectrometer; ICP emission spectrometer; Atomic absorption spectrometers for the determination of the ppm/ppb content of minor metal impurities in samples. 8

9 Results of collaboration between the IAP NAS of Ukraine CERN under the CLIC Programme Optical spectra from DC-sparc CLIC setup Sample Cu 9(7) Strong optical line Н 2 (462.9 nm) 9

10 Laser isotope mass-spectrometer with coordinate-sensitive detector 10

11 IAP NASU P464 Development of identification techniques of uranium ores in Ukrainian deposits and their concentrates by consistent phase-chemical and radioactive balance data P465 Study of Attribution Signatures of Various Uranium Bearing Materials 5728 Development of single-ion and X-ray microbeams using an electrostatic accelerator to investigate radiation damage in cells Current Research in Nuclear Forensics Field RER 0/0/34 Enhancing the Characterization, Preservation and Protection of Cultural Heritage Artefacts CRP 17089 Heavy Metal Transformation Dynamics in Biochemical Complexes in Trophic Chains CRP 17240 In Situ Study of Materials for Energy Applications by Means of Real-Time Ion Beams Analysis SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY CENTER IN UKRAINE 11

12 Investigation of final products of chemical enrichment of uranium ore Final products of chemical enrichment of uranium ore have been studied with the scanning electron microscopy. The product is uranium oxide crystals of prismatic form. Monoclinic system of crystals is the most probable. X-ray investigation of samples with Debye technique and their elemental analysis show that crystals are identical to oxidated uraninite U 4 O 9 SEM image of uranium oxide crystals Debyegram of fine uranium oxide crystals mixture 12

13 A Study of Uraninite by PIXE Technique μ-PIXE measurements were carried out at the Scanning Nuclear Microprobe facility of the Institute of Applied Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Sumy. Scanning of sections of all seven fragments of characteristic size of 100…200 μm was performed by proton beam with energy E=1.5 MeV with scan region of 50×50 pixels, step of scanning of 2 μm and 4 μm. The maps of different elements distribution on the same area of uraninite obtained by PIXE. The collective PIXE spectra (in logarithmical scale) of uraninite fragment Element μ-PIXE С, mass %error, % Na 0.0570.01 Al 0.940.16 Si 3.740.55 P 0.990.26 S 0.320.07 Ca 9.410.74 V 1.080.1 Fe 0.080.03 Pb 1.270.11 U 63.870.99 Cu 0.10.03 Mg 0.170.05 The composition of Uraninite 13

14 Efforts in Monitoring of Trace Amounts of Transuranium Elements Isotopes The isotopes of transuranium elements are the most toxic and is usually the most long-lived component of the emissions of the Chernobyl accident and other radioactive waste storage facilities in Ukraine and neighboring countries of former Soviet Union. Of all the methods for determining the main dose- forming radionuclides ( 238,239,240 Pu, 241,243 Am) radiochemical separation of plutonium and, especially, americium is technically the most difficult, time- consuming and expensive task. In this regard, radioecological studies of pollution by isotopes of transuranium elements in Ukraine were carried out in a very limited scale: both in localisation and on isotopes content. 14

15 Map of Ukraine pollution americium ( 241 Am) 2008 15

16 We can solve this problem! The Institute of Applied Physics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine has unique (for countries of former USSR) high-sensitive accelerator mass spectrometer AMS-1MV «Tandetron» (by HVEE, the Netherlands) with isotopic sensitivity of 10 -15.The AMS allows determining the content of all transuranium elements in any samples. This device enables us to define all known isotopes of plutonium and other actinides ( 238, 239, 240 Pu, 241, 243 Am, 237 Np) that are in the samples, to determine their contents, ratio, and, hence, to clarify their origin. 16

17 Relevance of Establishment of Laboratory Transuranium Elements in Ukraine Establishment of Center for collective use for determination of Trace Amounts of Transuranium Elements on the basis of accelerator mass spectrometry laboratory in Institute of Applied Physics NAS of Ukraine will permit: to promote prevention of nuclear terrorism, illicit traffic and/or use of nuclear materials in Ukraine (Nuclear Forensics Program, CBRN Defense); to identify nuclear materials through the isotopic composition and concomitant elements; to study the harmful effects of the Chernobyl disaster and to provide pollution monitoring of transuranium elements in Ukraine and neighboring countries. 17

18 The Method of Project Implementation Use of accelerator mass spectrometry allows simplifying the sample preparation procedure without pre- concentration and separation of isotopes of transuranium elements. Using AMS for studies of environmental pollution permits reaching detection limit of 1.3 ppq for 240 Pu (Reports of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLL) and other literature sources). Project provides: Training specialists of the IAP at LLL for 6 months. Collaboration of specialists LLL and IAP in the optimization of the analytical mode of the accelerator mass spectrometer and improving of analytical techniques in the IAP. The proposed term of the project - 2 years. 18

19 Expected results and perspective Laboratory of transuranium elements will allow reliably identify nuclear materials, will improve the radioisotope researches. The Laboratory will be a deterrent for illicit traffic of any potentially dangerous nuclear materials in the territory of Ukraine and neighboring countries. The project provides the adaptation of existing techniques and development of new methods for determination of the isotopes concentrations of transuranium elements in the IAP NASU in collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (USA). 19

20 Thank you for your attention V.Yu. Storizhko Director of the Institute of Applied Physics NAS of Ukraine, Academician NAS of Ukraine, Professor, Doctor of Physics and Mathematics, Tel. +380 (542) 222-794, Fax: +380 (542) 223-760 E-mail:

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