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© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
8 Physical Development of the Infant
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Key Terms skeletal system failure to thrive body proportions ossification deciduous teeth motor development gross-motor skills fine-motor skills age norm crawl creeping cruising voluntary grasping
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Objective Describe how an infant develops physically during the first year.
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Skeletal Growth Skeletal system is made up of bones and teeth Skeletal system Length – increase birth length by 30% during first five months – reach 1.5 times their birth length during first year – boys are usually ¾ inch longer than girls by one year of age continued
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Skeletal Growth Weight – around 9 months, babies are rather chubby as fat tissues increase – boys are usually 1½ pounds heavier than girls by one year of age boys have more muscle mass than girls girls have more fat than boys continued
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Skeletal Growth Average length and weight during first year continued Age in Months LengthWeight Birth20 in.7½ lbs. 323¾ in.12½ lbs. 626 in.26¾ lbs. 928 in.20 lbs. 1229½ in.22¼ lbs.
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Skeletal Growth Failure to thrive is a condition in which a child fails to grow at a healthy rate Failure to thrive Possible causes – disease preventing nutrient absorption – food not providing enough nutrients – feedings offered too infrequently or last too short of a time – baby abused or neglected continued
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Skeletal Growth Body proportions (relative size of body parts) differ from those of adults Body proportions – infant’s head one-fourth of total length; adult’s head one-eighth of total height Head larger than chest “Pot-bellied” abdomen and short legs Center of gravity high on baby’s body continued
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Skeletal Growth Infant skeleton is mainly made of cartilage – large spaces between “bones” to help the joints bend easily without breaking – skeletons are not sturdy, which makes sitting and standing impossible – bones can easily become misshapen continued
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Skeletal Growth Babies need to change position often – tummy time encourages rolling over, reaching, crawling continued
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Skeletal Growth During the first year, three changes occur in a baby’s bones – length increases – ossification (depositing of the minerals, calcium, and phosphorus) begins ossification – number of bones changes few bones in hand differentiate into many parts of skull become one large bone continued
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Skeletal Growth Deciduous teeth (nonpermanent) appear in a predictable manner, but timing varies greatly Deciduous teeth – most babies begin cutting teeth during second half of first year
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. What Do You Think? How should families care for an infant’s deciduous teeth? Why is it important to practice healthy dental hygiene for teeth that will be replaced by permanent teeth at a later date?
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Objective Describe the order in which an infant’s motor skills develop.
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Motor Development Motor development is the use and control of muscles that direct body movements Motor development Gross-motor skills use large muscles Gross-motor skills – trunk, arms, legs Fine-motor skills use small muscles Fine-motor skills – hands, fingers continued
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Motor Development Baby’s motor skills develop in three main patterns – movements are slow because babies must think as they move – reactions develop from general to specific – development occurs in two directions head-to-foot center-to-extremities
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Head-to-Foot Development Begins before birth Milestones are sequenced steps – order of steps more constant than timing Age norm is a typical time when a developmental milestone occurs Age norm – can be expressed as an average age or age range continued
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Head-to-Foot Development continued
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Head-to-Foot Development Crawl means to move by pulling with arms, not lifting abdomen from floor Crawl – about seven months Creeping means to move by using hands and knees or feet Creeping – between six and eight months Cruising means to walk by holding something for support Cruising – between 12 and 14 months
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Center-to-Extremities Development continued
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Center-to-Extremities Development Control of arms, hands, fingers develop in stages – born with Palmar reflex – at two months, begin to swipe at objects in an attempt to grasp them – about four months, grasping reflex is replaced by voluntary graspingvoluntary grasping well developed between five to six months – at eight or nine months, pincer grasp is developed
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. What Do You Think? How can adult caregivers support head-to-foot development and center-to-extremities development of infants? Describe some specific activities that can be incorporated into the infant’s daily schedule.
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. age norm. Typical time when a developmental milestone, such as walking or talking, occurs; an age norm can be expressed as an average age or an age range. body proportions. Relative size of body parts. crawl. Moving by pulling with the arms, but not lifting the abdomen from the floor. Glossary of Key Terms
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. creeping. Moving by using the hands and knees or the hands and feet with the abdomen off the floor. cruising. Walking by holding something for support. deciduous teeth. First set of teeth, which will later be replaced by permanent teeth; also called nonpermanent or baby teeth. Glossary of Key Terms
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. failure to thrive. Condition in which a child fails to grow at a healthy rate. fine-motor skills. Being able to use and control the small muscles, especially those in the fingers and hands. gross-motor skills. Being able to use the large muscles to roll over, sit, crawl, stand, and walk. Glossary of Key Terms
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. motor development. Use and control of muscles that direct body movements. ossification. Hardening of bones caused by the depositing of the minerals calcium and phosphorus. skeletal system. Body system that includes the bones and teeth. voluntary grasping. Intentional grasping of objects. Glossary of Key Terms
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