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Learning ObjectivesStarter Popularity & Rejection To know what popularity and rejection are To know what causes popularity and rejection To evaluate the.

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Presentation on theme: "Learning ObjectivesStarter Popularity & Rejection To know what popularity and rejection are To know what causes popularity and rejection To evaluate the."— Presentation transcript:

1 Learning ObjectivesStarter Popularity & Rejection To know what popularity and rejection are To know what causes popularity and rejection To evaluate the causes of popularity and rejection Who are the most and least popular people in our year? Can you describe their personalities? Can you think of why they are or are not popular?

2 Coie & Dodge (1983) Carried out a sociometric study of primary- school-aged children. Children were asked to identify who in the class they ‘liked most’ and who they ‘liked least’

3 Coie & Dodge (1983) From responses the researchers identified 5 types of children: Popular, average, controversial, neglected and rejected.

4 Schaffer 1996

5 Berk (2003) Identifies two types of rejected child: Rejected-aggressive & Rejected withdrawn

6 Xie et al. 2006 Aimed to find out the characteristics that young people think result in popularity.

7 Method Semi structured interview about what makes children popular. 489 African-American students from high risk inner city neighbourhood who were 6,9, and 12 years old took part

8 Results Characteristics and behaviours identified as being important for popularity changed with age

9 Age 6 Positive social behaviours were seen as important

10 Age 9 & 12 Appearance and self presentation were mentioned the most

11 Age 12 Deviant behaviour (aggression, bullying, substance abuse) were mentioned the most More for boys than girls

12 Conclusion Age differences identified Findings are similar to those of lower-risk samples and show that deviance does not have a powerful effect on popularity

13 Evaluation Lacks cultural diversity Biased Use of interviews of children is not an effective method of research

14 Causes of Popularity and rejection

15 1. Attractiveness Children prefer to be friends with those who are attractive

16 Vaughn & Langlois (1983) Found a significant correlation between ratings of physical attractiveness and popularity. They used a sociometric analysis with 59 preschool children Much more significant correlation between the two variables among the girls

17 2. Similarity Children chose friends who are near or who are seen regularly. Chose playmates from similar backgrounds, of the same sex and those who shared similar interests.

18 Rubin 1980 Refers to strong pressures to exclude the ‘deviant’ or different children

19 Kandel 1978 Carried out a longitudinal study of adolescent friendships from the start to the end of the year. He identified 3 types of friendship

20 1. Maintained friendships Existed at the start and end of the year

21 2. Dissolved friendships Existed at the start, but not at the end of the year

22 Newly found friendships Started up at some time during the year.

23 3. Internal working model Relationships between child and mother figure sets a pattern for future relationships

24 Hazan & Shaver 1987 Proposed 3 types of attachment (shown in Ainsworth’s Strange situation) carried through to later relationships with other people. They linked it to later romantic relationships

25 Adult relationship characteristics TypeRelationship SecureNo trouble getting close to others Happy depending on others Comfortable if others are dependent Not worried about getting abandoned Not afraid someone will get too close Anxious- avoidantSomewhat uncomfortable being close to others Difficulty trusting others Difficulty depending on others Nervous when anyone gets too close Feels partners want to be too intimate Anxious- ambiviant resistantConcerned partner will leave Disappointed other people will not get close enough Desire for intense closeness frightens others away Afraid others are not really committed

26 4. Personality Characteristics Personality characteristics have been linked to Popularity and rejection

27 Dodge et al (1983)- Aim Investigated playground behaviour to see whether there were behavioural differences between popular and unpopular children

28 Dodge et al (1983)- Method 5 year olds observed in the playground In a naturalistic observation Researchers focused on pairs of children at play, watched to see how a third child would approach

29 Dodge et al (1983)- Method Behaviours such as time spent watching, types of verbal comments made and the style of approach were recorded.

30 Dodge et al (1983)- Results Popular and unpopular children differed significantly in their approaches to other children

31 Popular children watched and waited, made group-oriented statements and were gradually accepted.

32 Neglected children Watched but shied away from attempting interaction.

33 Rejected children Highly active and aggressive, disrupting play of the others, being generally uncooperative and making critical comments.

34 Conclusion The unpopular or rejected and neglected children relates to deficits in social skills

35 5. Social Skills Studies have shown that one reason for rejection by peers may be a child’s poor social skills

36 Oden and Asher 1977 Set up a programme of social skills training for 8 to 9 year-old isolates.

37 Oden and Asher 1977 Coaching was given in : How to join in Turn-taking Sharing Communication Giving attention to others helping

38 Results Children were more out-going and more positive towards other people They had improved social status They were no longer isolated

39 Exam Question Briefly discuss two causes of popularity with and rejection by peers. Refer to psychological research into children’s friendships in your answer (4 marks)

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