Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.


Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "NUCLEIC ACIDS AND PROTEIN SYNTHESIS. QUESTION 1 DNA."— Presentation transcript:



3 QUESTION 2 To store and transmit the genetic information that tells cells which proteins to make and when to make them

4 QUESTION 3 They form the structural units of cells and help control chemical processes within cells.

5 Question 4 The nucleotide. They are arranged in two long complementary chains.

6 Question 5 A nitrogen- containing base, a sugar molecule called deoxyribose, and a phosphate group.

7 Question 6 Adenine, abbreviated A Guanine, abbreviated G Cytosine, abbreviated C Thymine, abbreviated T

8 Purines: Adenine and Guanine. Have two carbon rings Pyrimidines: Cytosine and Thymine. Have a single carbon ring.

9 Question 8 James Watson and Francis Crick in 1953.

10 Question 9 The alternating deoxyribose sugar and phosphate molecules which are linked together by covalent bonds.

11 Two Views of the DNA backbone Sugars Phosphates

12 The backbone is shown in yellow in this diagram. Notice that there are two backbones, one for each of the strands of nucleotides

13 Question 10 They are covalently bonded to the deoxyribose sugar and then to the complementary nitrogen base in the other strand by hydrogen bonds.

14 Hydrogen bonds Backbone Covalent bonds

15 Question 11 Guanine from one nucleotide strand will always pair with cytosine from the other strand using three hydrogen bonds and adenine from one strand will pair with thymine from the other using two hydrogen bonds.

16 Backbone Two Three

17 Question 12 The process of copying DNA in a cell.

18 Question 13 The two nucleotide chains separate by unwinding, and each chain serves as a template for a new nucleotide chain.

19 Red color is the new strand. Blue color is the original strand.

20 Question 14 The point at which the two nucleotide chains separate Replication Fork

21 Question 15 They separate the two complementary chains of nucleotides in the DNA molecule by moving along the molecule and breaking the hydrogen bonds between the complementary bases.

22 DNA Helicase

23 Question 16 Bind to a separated chain of nucleotides, move along the separated chain and assemble a new chain using free nucleotides in the nucleus and the separated chain as a template.

24 DNA Helicase Polymerase

25 Question 17 The complementary nature of the two chains of nucleotides that make up the DNA molecule. If the original chain of nucleotides has a nitrogen base sequence of CATCAA the other assembled beside it would be GTAGTT.

26 DNA Helicase Polymerase Red color is the new strand,blue color the original strand. The red box is showing the complementary bases mentioned in the last slide.

27 Question 18 It proceeds in opposite directions on each original strand. Replication begins simultaneously at many points along one original strand and at just one point on the other original strand.

28 DNA Helicase Polymerase Direction of Replication Polymerase

29 Question 19 Two new exact copies of the original DNA molecule. Each molecule has one original strand of nucleotides and a copied complementary strand.

30 Original DNA Original DNA strands opened up Two new molecules of DNA each with one old and one new strand

31 Practice making a copy of DNA

32 Question 20 Replication is very accurate, only about one error in every 10,000 paired nucleotides.

33 Question 21 A mutation

34 Question 22 Enzymes that proofread DNA and repair errors

35 Question 23 A variety of agents, including chemicals, ultraviolet radiation and other forms of radiation.

36 Question 24 The transfer of genetic information from the DNA in the nucleus to the site of protein synthesis on the ribosomes.

37 Question 25 The nucleotide.

38 Question 26 The sugar in RNA is ribose in DNA it’s deoxyribose. RNA has the nitrogen base Uracil (U) instead of Thymine as in DNA

39 Question 27 Messenger RNA (mRNA) - carries genetic information from DNA in the nucleus to the ribosome.

40 Ribosomal RNA (rRNA), combines with proteins to make up the two subunits of a ribosome

41 Question 27 (continued) Transfer RNA (tRNA) -each binds to a particular amino acid and brings it to the ribosome

42 Question 28 The process by which genetic information is copied from DNA to mRNA

43 Question 29 RNA polymerase. Makes RNA copies of specific sequences of DNA

44 Question 30 A specific region of DNA that marks the beginning of that part of the DNA chain that will be transcribed. The DNA unwinds and the RNA polymerase binds at a particular site on the DNA. The initial binding site is called the " promoter region ".

45 Question 31 That portion of the DNA molecule (only one of the two nucleotide strands) that is copied by RNA polymerase.

46 Template strand DNA

47 Question 32 The nitrogen base sequence on the template chain and complementary base pairing by RNA polymerase.

48 DNA Template strand Nitrogen base sequence on DNA Complementary base pairing on mRNA

49 Question 33 Uracil Template strand DNA

50 Question 34 The termination signal - a specific sequence of nucleotides on the template that marks the end of a gene. Template strand DNA

51 Question 35 The RNA polymerase Template strand DNA Termination signal

52 Question 36 Transcripts - different types of RNA molecules including mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA. The mRNA may have further processing occur. Noncoding regions called introns are removed and the remaining coding regions called exons are spliced together.


54 Question 37 Amino Acids. Twenty different kinds.

55 Question 38 It’s three dimensional structure, which is determined by its amino- acid sequence.

56 Levels of protein structure that determine the function of a protein.

57 Question 39 Triplets of nucleotides in mRNA that determine the sequence of amino acids in proteins

58 Genetic Code

59 Question 40 A sequence of three nucleotides on a mRNA molecule. It codes for one specific amino acid. There are 64 codons.

60 Genetic Code

61 codons start

62 Question 41 The codon that causes a ribosome to start translating an mRNA molecule into a protein. It is always the nitrogen base sequence AUG. The codons that cause translation to cease. There are three.

63 start

64 Question 42 That all organisms are related.

65 Question 43 The process of assembling proteins from information encoded in mRNA. It begins when a mRNA molecule leaves the nucleus and migrates to a ribosome.


67 Question 44 The ribosome.

68 Question 45 tRNA molecules.

69 Question 46 A sequence of three nitrogen bases on the tRNA molecule that are complementary to a codon on a mRNA molecule. It actually pairs with the codon on mRNA.

70 Question 47 The complementary base pairing between codons on mRNA and anticodons on tRNA anticodon codons

71 Question 48 Composed of rRNA and proteins. Make up 2 subunits. Found free in the cytosol and attached to the endoplasmic reticulum.

72 Question 49 Ribosomes found free in the cytosol produces proteins used inside the cell. Those attached to the E.R. produce proteins used in the cell membrane or outside of the cell.

73 Question 50 One site holds a mRNA transcript so its codons can be read by tRNA. The other two sites (P and A sites) hold tRNA molecules so that their attached amino acids can be bonded to the growing chain. mRNA holding site

74 Question 51 Methionine. Only initially. It may be removed later. mRNA binding site Start codon

75 Question 52 A stop codon. View Translation

76 Question 53 Yes. Many can. They may form a chain known as a polysome. transcript

77 Review of Protein Synthesis: Transcription and Translation


Similar presentations

Ads by Google