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Approaches to ENUM Implementation in the USA Tony Rutkowski VeriSign, Inc tel:+1.703.742.4905 Before the Dept of State ITAC-T.

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Presentation on theme: "Approaches to ENUM Implementation in the USA Tony Rutkowski VeriSign, Inc tel:+1.703.742.4905 Before the Dept of State ITAC-T."— Presentation transcript:

1 Approaches to ENUM Implementation in the USA Tony Rutkowski VeriSign, Inc tel:+1.703.742.4905 Before the Dept of State ITAC-T Advisory Committee SG-A AdHoc Meeting on ENUM McLean VA 12 Feb 2001 Rev 4.15 Bryan Mordecai Telcordia Technologies tel:+1.732.699.8098

2 VeriSign-Telcordia Outline Provisioning Architectures Scenarios Designated Zones Geography Options Provider Selection Provisioning The MetaQuestion Record Discovery An ENUM Forum Authorization and Authentication of E164 Name Rights Trust models ENUM Playing Field Coordination Some Required Functions Interconnection: Solving the Many-to-Many Problem Other Issues

3 VeriSign-Telcordia Provisioning Architectures There will be multiple flavored ENUM Zones Some will seek special status for Designated Zones (, e164.itu,, etc.) Some will establish Competitive Zones based on branding and performance in the marketplace (, etc.) Some will exist as major business customer intranums No way to stop it (Enumelliums) from happening Special status will not be given by all governments Even if the current set of players agreed to forgo Competitive Zones, others would emerge later A tiered provisioning architecture is assumed for many ENUM zones - especially Designated Zones Tier 1 is perceived as an important advantage for being a Tier 2 provider - which is expected to be more lucrative

4 VeriSign-Telcordia Scenarios Two views of the world Proponents of Special Status Zones can rest comfortable in the knowledge that those investing in Competitive Zones are wasting their money Proponents of Competitive Zones can assure themselves that innovation and investment in their products will win out In the end, the market will decide which zones will succeed.

5 VeriSign-Telcordia Designated Zones has a special IETF/IAB status evangelized to ITU-T SG2 WP1/2 Other ITU bodies are unsure what their designated ENUM Special Status Zone should be (See S-G Report to WTPF2001, French interventions) Implementation of ENUM Special Status Zones will be treated by the ITU Member State of the associated region based on regulatory and antitrust considerations Any designated ENUM Special Status Zone for North American, e.g.,, is under the elective control of the North American governments

6 VeriSign-Telcordia Geography Options Could divide the set of U.S. area codes into 8 groups by geography to provide additional competitive opportunities geographic orientation is not necessary, but a convenience that keeps systems closer to callers allows the state PUCs to have a closer relationship (assuming that state borders are honored in the break up) Allows other countries under the 1 country code to control their own ENUM system

7 VeriSign-Telcordia Provider Selection Issue a set of (identical) RFPs to allow companies to bid on the operation of the Tier 1 system in each of the regions Choose amongst the bidders on normal standards of price and performance Bidders make money by charging a fee to the registrants, which is approved ahead of time The fee is set What will not be known is the number of registrants Operators take all of the risk

8 VeriSign-Telcordia Provisioning Practices should be similar across all the regions charging model multiple registrars thick model open Tier 2 authentication mechanism Trust model should receive special attention A workable, open authentication mechanism should be established before the bidding process Non-discriminatory treatment: same mechanism should be available to all ENUM Zone providers

9 VeriSign-Telcordia The MetaQuestion Because an implementation probably requires FCC-DOJ-NTIA action, do they: assume jurisdiction over ENUM provisioning and exercise continuing regulatory authority in selecting providers and establishing some kind of provisioning framework, or eschew jurisdiction and/or exercise of authority, declaring that there will be no based implementations for the U.S., or allow an ENUM cooperative solution to emerge subject to potential intervention, if necessary Choice of model will have global effects

10 VeriSign-Telcordia Record Discovery With multiple E164 name instantiations in different DNS zones, some means will be necessary to discover and use the records Options include: a pure marketplace solution where those that develop and offer ENUM application services will individually decide which DNS zones to query for ENUM records an industry cooperative solution where some form of open registry or hints table can be maintained that provides a bounded set of zones to query for any given E164 number It seems reasonable to assume that the marketplace will quickly reduce the number of zones down to a relatively small number.

11 VeriSign-Telcordia An ENUM Forum American Registry for Internet Numbers, Ltd. (ARIN) provides a semi-autonomous ENUM Forum ARIN was created in 1997 as an industry non-profit cooperative to manage the allocation and registration of Internet resources. has effectively managed sharing of the Americas Region IP addresses and the global DNS zone ARIN could provide a permanent dedicated forum for developing the operational architecture and arrangements for the ENUM zones work with all ENUM related bodies and providers, including those in all e164 zones, to support trusted, competitive ENUM services

12 VeriSign-Telcordia Authorization and Authentication of E164 Name Rights Some means are necessary to help assure: that a customer or provider who wishes to instantiate a ENUM zone actually has the right to use the number(s) involved that the zone will be unique Issues exists no matter what approach is taken Options include: a government mandated or regulated solution that accomplishes the same as the above. a pure marketplace solution where each provider simply develops its own authorization and authentication mechanism, mindful of the associated legal liabilities. an industry cooperative solution that relies on some consensus for initial proof of ownership, handoff processes, and definition of interfaces and responsibilities of the parties. This may also include the use of digital certificates for this purpose

13 VeriSign-Telcordia Trust models Coordinated actions Service providers can use some kind of authentication protocol FCC has already in CC Docket No. 94-129 instituted Internet Letters of Agency (LOAs) to deal with the problem set e.g., telcos can perform the authentication directly, issuing passwords or digital certificates to phone number owners for identifying themselves to the ENUM Tier 1 provider Certificates have the advantage that they can be revoked on termination of service Independent autonomous actions ENUM systems can require a call from that ANI to validate ENUM systems can call back to the telephone no and require that a certain code be keyed-in using DTMF An organization can investigate and certify that the number(s) belong to the registering entity - similar to the process of getting a digital certificate and familiar to enterprise registrants

14 VeriSign-Telcordia ENUM Playing Field Coordination Multiple Entities Registries Registrars NAPTR (T2) Providers Telephone Service Providers (TSPs) (could be Registrars Coordination required between Registrars and TSPs Registrars and Registries Registrars and T2 Providers Key Issues How is authentication and validation achieved? How are records administered? How can interconnection between the multiple entities be efficiently accomplished?

15 VeriSign-Telcordia Some Required Functions Registration and validation Authenticating the Registrant Authorizing that the Registrant has control over the TN Communication of disconnects from TSPs to the Registry Record Administration Pending record management Mass change capabilities Security Activity logs Audits

16 VeriSign-Telcordia Interconnection: Solving the Many-to-Many Problem TSPs Registrars T2 Providers Registries Registrar Gateway Typical functions Automated flow-through driven transactions Validation of requests before messages are forwarded Event timing and notification Tracking of message flows and interactions

17 VeriSign-Telcordia Other Issues Consumer Protection and Privacy An array of consumer protection issues, especially privacy, are relevant to ENUM implementation In the U.S., these are usually treated through marketplace mechanisms industry cooperation, and application of general legal norms regulatory interventions by government agencies is not the norm, especially for nascent services Number Treatment Availability ENUM is likely to produce a demand for E164 numbers unrelated to any existing telephony-related services A matter squarely within the existing jurisdiction and authority of the FCC and others under the NANC for the North America Special stature or protection of all E164 number instantiations are likely to be rejected under progressive national legal regimes

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