Presentation on theme: "Warm-up 1/14/2015 Find your map notes from yesterday. What would you do if someone shot someone in your family? What would you do if someone was forcing."— Presentation transcript:
Warm-up 1/14/2015 Find your map notes from yesterday. What would you do if someone shot someone in your family? What would you do if someone was forcing you to move into Mexico or Canada?
Warm-up 1/14/2015 Please come in and get the map sheet from the table. You will also need 3 map pencils/crayons. Recapping yesterday: How would you summarize the Cold War in two sentences?
In the beginning… 1389 Ottoman Turks bypassed Constantinople and landed in the Balkan peninsula to create a buffer zone and to prevent aid from coming to the city. 1453 Constantinople fell to the Turks, who then turned westward destroying the Hungarian empire and conquering Herzegovina. The Ottomans forced its conquered people into Islam. Many Orthodox Christians went ‘underground’ and considered those that converted traitors.
1520 Austria invaded what was left of the Hungarian empire and stopped the Ottoman’s advance in western Europe. The Austrians converted the Slovenes and Croatians to Roman Catholicism. They met resistance from the Orthodox Serbians. Serbs were rounded up and relocated along the Ottoman border (around Krajina) as tensions mounted between Catholic Croats and Orthodox Serbs.
Late 19 th Century The Ottoman Empire was a shell of its former self and most of Europe seized the opportunity to attack it. As a result of the Crimean War, Austria gained more territory, including Bosnia- Herzegovina, and with Russian help, Serbia gained its independence (both orthodox). Austria introduced Roman Catholicism into Bosnia-Herzegovina.
End of World War I A new country was carved from the old boundaries of the Ottoman’s and Austria- Hungary. The kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes was established. Serbia dominated the kingdom. This increased quarreling between Croats and Serbs. The Serbian king set up a virtual dictatorship and renamed it Yugoslavia. The Croats looked to Germany for help and formed a separatist movement funded by the Nazis.
1941 Hitler invaded Yugoslavia and rewarded the Croats for their loyalty with a separate (puppet) state. Croats had a free hand in the persecution of Serbs and thousands were killed. Underground Serbs resisted, and with Soviet and American assistance tied down Nazi divisions during the war. Serbs took revenge on the Croats and killed thousands at the end of the war.
Post World War II Tito, a guerrilla leader assumed power. He had Soviet backing but was not under Soviet Domination. He remade Yugoslavia as a six republic federation. Tito used terror to keep ethnic rivalries under control. At his death, Yugoslavia began to fall apart and with the demise of Communism, Yugoslavia broke apart again.
Post World War II The current country is made up of Serbia and Montenegro, plus two autonomous regions. The other four regions have all claimed independence. It is in the newly formed country of Bosnia-Herzegovina that all three ethnic groups are fairly equally mixed. See ‘How the Seeds of Hate were Sown’
1992- After the Fall of Communism In 1991-1992, Croatia and Slovenia declare independence. Bosnia-Herzegovina (which is ethnically mixed), was not sure what to do. Serbs in Bosnia said, stay part of Yugoslavia, but they were overruled. Macedonia was next. Serbs in B-H, declared independence, but B-H said it was unconstitutional. Montenegro gained independence in 2006.
1992- After the Fall of Communism When these republics started to break away is when the Serbs started their “ethnic cleansing”. Slobodan Milosevic Confused yet?
1995- Dayton Peace Agreement In December 1995, the three principal combatants Croatia, Bosnia (Muslim), and Serbia signed a cease-fire agreement in Dayton, Ohio. A NATO force of 60,000 troops including 20,000 U.S. troops would enforce this cease-fire for one year.
Balkanization The break-up of a region into smaller, often hostile, political units. Can you think of any other examples of balkanization?
Recap SLAVS Serbs (Orthodox Christian) Croats (Roman Catholic) Muslims (Bosnian) Fighting because of… –religion –the past –nationalism Serbs are seen as the bad guys because of the ethnic cleansing. Once united as Yugoslavia (but fell apart)