Presentation on theme: "Democratic Developments in England Feudalism- loosely organized system of rule in which powerful local lords divided their land-holdings among lesser lords."— Presentation transcript:
Democratic Developments in England Feudalism- loosely organized system of rule in which powerful local lords divided their land-holdings among lesser lords. In exchange the lesser lords pledged service and loyalty (ex. provided knights in battle)
Common Law Henry II – 1154 Decisions of royal courts became common law – a legal system based on custom and court rulings applied to all of England Local officials gathered a jury, or group sworn to speak the truth, to join traveling judges to help determine which cases would go to trial
Magna Carta 1215 – King John was forced to sign the Magna Carta, or Great Charter, which affirmed feudal rights –Protected freemen from arbitrary arrest, imprisonment except by “legal judgment of his peers” (now called ‘due process’) –Not to raise new taxes without consent of Great Council of lords and clergy –Nobles had certain rights (later extend to all citizens) –Monarch must obey the law
Parliament 1200’s Great Council evolved into parliament Helped to unify England Set up framework for England’s legislature, came to be called “Model Parliament”
Hundred Years’ War Between 1337-1453 England and France fought over land, politics Changed England politically Rulers went repeatedly to Parliament for funds “power of the purse” – won right to approve any new taxes, could insist monarch to meet its demands before voting on taxes
Absolute monarch: A ruler with complete authority over the government and lives of the people. Divine right: Belief that authority to rule came directly from God.
England Tudor Dynasty- ruled 1485-1603 included Henry VIII and Elizabeth I. Used parliament wisely. Protestant Reformation: religious reform movement questioning church practices. –England broke with Catholic church to create Church of England
Stuarts After Elizabeth I died without an heir throne passed to Scottish relatives the Stuarts in 1603 James I agreed to rule according to English laws and customs, behaved like absolute monarch –Dissolved parliament Charles I also claimed absolute power, imprisoned foes without trial, squeezed nation for money, need to raise taxes forced him to call parliament
Petition of Right Before voting for any funds, Parliament insisted that Charles accept petition. Prohibited the king from raising taxes without consent of Parliament and banned imprisonment without just cause. Signed, but dissolved parliament the next year
Long Parliament 1640 – Charles needed funds to combat a rebellion in Scotland so he summoned Parliament. Parliament launched own revolt, called Long Parliament, lasted until 1653 Triggered greatest political revolution in English history 1642- Charles led troops into House of Commons to arrest most radical leaders Radicals raised their own army
England English Civil War: 1642-1649 Major challenge to Absolute monarchs. Revolutionaries triumphed. Charles 1 vs. Parliament. King put on trial- found guilty and condemned to death. Oliver Cromwell: Leader of Roundhead, or revolutionaries. Skilled general, Puritan. Believed in religious freedom for Protestants. Led the “Commonwealth” or English republic. Closed theaters, no dancing, increased schooling to read bible. Died 1658.
Charles II and James II Charles II – son of Charles I shared father’s faith in absolute monarchy and secretly has Catholic sympathies Accepted Petition of Right and didn’t make mistakes with Parliament like his father Charles’ brother, James, inherited throne in 1685. Lacked good sense, suspended laws on a whim and flaunted Catholic faith 1688- parliamentary leaders invited James’ protestant daughter, Mary and her husband to become rulers of England
Glorious Revolution: William and Mary landed with armies in 1688. James II fled to France. Bloodless overthrow became Glorious Revolution. Had to accept several acts before taking throne.
English Bill of Rights: 1689 Acts passed by parliament accepted by William and Mary: limits on royal power, limited monarchy (gov’t limits kings power), habeas corpus (needed to be charged with crime before imprisoned) * ensured the superiority of Parliament over the Monarchy