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Proposals and Formal Reports

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Presentation on theme: "Proposals and Formal Reports"— Presentation transcript:

1 Proposals and Formal Reports
Chapter 10 Proposals and Formal Reports

2 Informal Proposals Introduction must provide "hook" to capture reader's interest. Background section identifies problems and goals of project. Proposal discusses plan for solving existing problem. Include a schedule of activities.

3 Informal Proposals Staffing section describes credentials and expertise of project leaders. Budget indicates project costs. Authorization asks for approval to proceed.

4 Formal Proposals Much larger than informal proposals
Organized into many parts.

5 Preparing to Write Formal Reports
Begin with a definition of the project. Use outlines and headings.

6 Researching Secondary Data
Electronic Databases Magazine, newspaper, and journal articles Newsletters, business reports,company profiles, government data, reviews, and directories

7 Researching Secondary Data
The Web Product data, mission statements, staff directories, press releases, current company news, government information, article reprints, scientific reports, and employment information

8 Internet Search Tips and Techniques
Use two or three search tools. Understand case sensitivity in keyword searches. Understand Boolean searching. Be specific. Omit articles and prepositions.

9 Internet Search Tips and Techniques
Use wild cards (e.g., cent** will retrieve center and centre). Know your search tool; use FAQs and "How to Search" sections. Bookmark the best. Be persistent.

10 Generating Primary Data
Surveys Interviews Locate an expert. Prepare for the interview. Make question objective and friendly. Watch the time End graciously. Observation and Experimentation

11 Documenting Data and Plagiarism
Plagiarism is the act of not documenting your sources, of taking another person’s ideas or published words and not acknowledging that fact.

12 Documenting Data and Plagiarism
In a business report, documenting serves three purposes: 1. Strengthens your argument. 2. Protects you. 3. Instructs the reader.

13 Illustrating Report Data
Reasons for using visual aids To clarify data To summarize important ideas To emphasize facts and provide focus To add visual interest

14 Illustrating Report Data
Most common types of visuals aids Tables Charts Graphs Photographs, maps, illustrations

15 Matching Visual Aids With Objectives
Table To show exact figures and values

16 Matching Visual Aids With Objectives
Bar Chart To compare one item with others

17 Matching Visual Aids With Objectives
Line Chart To demonstrate changes in quantitative data over time

18 Matching Visual Aids With Objectives
Pie Chart To visualize a whole unit and the proportions of its components

19 Matching Visual Aids With Objectives
Flow Chart To display a process or procedure

20 Matching Visual Aids With Objectives
Organization Chart To define a hierarchy of elements or a set of relationships

21 Matching Visual Aids With Objectives
Map, Photograph, or Illustration To achieve authenticity, to spotlight a location, or to show an item in use

22 Tips for Effective Use of Visual Aids
Clearly identify the contents of the visual aid with a meaningful title and appropriate labels. Refer the reader to the visual aid by discussing it in the text and mentioning its location and figure number. Locate the visual aid close to its reference in the text.

23 Tips for Effective Use of Visual Aids
Strive for vertical placement of visual aids. Give credit to the source if appropriate.

24 Organizing Report Data
Deductive strategy (main ideas first) Inductive strategy (facts and discussion first) Chronological sequence (historical data)

25 Organizing Report Data
Geographical or spatial arrangement (e.g., East, West, South, North, etc.) Topical or functional arrangement (e.g., duties of CEO, duties of general manager, etc.) Component or criteria arrangement (e.g., comparing two or more solution—two cities on a call centre short list)

26 Presenting the Final Report
Prefatory Parts Title fly Title page Letter or memo or of authorization Letter or memo of transmittal Table of contents Executive summary or abstract

27 Presenting the Final Report
Body of report Introduction or background Discussion of findings Summary, conclusions, or recommendations

28 Presenting the Final Report
Supplementary parts of a formal report Footnotes or endnotes Bibliography Appendix

29 End

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