Presentation on theme: "Proposals and Formal Reports"— Presentation transcript:
1 Proposals and Formal Reports Chapter 10Proposals and Formal Reports
2 Informal ProposalsIntroduction must provide "hook" to capture reader's interest.Background section identifies problems and goals of project.Proposal discusses plan for solving existing problem. Include a schedule of activities.
3 Informal ProposalsStaffing section describes credentials and expertise of project leaders.Budget indicates project costs.Authorization asks for approval to proceed.
4 Formal Proposals Much larger than informal proposals Organized into many parts.
5 Preparing to Write Formal Reports Begin with a definition of the project.Use outlines and headings.
6 Researching Secondary Data Electronic DatabasesMagazine, newspaper, and journal articlesNewsletters, business reports,company profiles, government data, reviews, and directories
7 Researching Secondary Data The WebProduct data, mission statements, staff directories, press releases, current company news, government information, article reprints, scientific reports, and employment information
8 Internet Search Tips and Techniques Use two or three search tools.Understand case sensitivity in keyword searches.Understand Boolean searching.Be specific.Omit articles and prepositions.
9 Internet Search Tips and Techniques Use wild cards (e.g., cent** will retrieve center and centre).Know your search tool; use FAQs and "How to Search" sections.Bookmark the best.Be persistent.
10 Generating Primary Data SurveysInterviewsLocate an expert.Prepare for the interview.Make question objective and friendly.Watch the timeEnd graciously.Observation and Experimentation
11 Documenting Data and Plagiarism Plagiarism is the act of not documenting your sources, of taking another person’s ideas or published words and not acknowledging that fact.
12 Documenting Data and Plagiarism In a business report, documenting serves three purposes:1. Strengthens your argument.2. Protects you.3. Instructs the reader.
13 Illustrating Report Data Reasons for using visual aidsTo clarify dataTo summarize important ideasTo emphasize facts and provide focusTo add visual interest
14 Illustrating Report Data Most common types of visuals aidsTablesChartsGraphsPhotographs, maps, illustrations
15 Matching Visual Aids With Objectives TableTo show exact figures and values
16 Matching Visual Aids With Objectives Bar ChartTo compare one item with others
17 Matching Visual Aids With Objectives Line ChartTo demonstrate changes in quantitative data over time
18 Matching Visual Aids With Objectives Pie ChartTo visualize a whole unit and the proportions of its components
19 Matching Visual Aids With Objectives Flow ChartTo display a process or procedure
20 Matching Visual Aids With Objectives Organization ChartTo define a hierarchy of elements or a set of relationships
21 Matching Visual Aids With Objectives Map, Photograph, or IllustrationTo achieve authenticity, to spotlight a location, or to show an item in use
22 Tips for Effective Use of Visual Aids Clearly identify the contents of the visual aid with a meaningful title and appropriate labels.Refer the reader to the visual aid by discussing it in the text and mentioning its location and figure number.Locate the visual aid close to its reference in the text.
23 Tips for Effective Use of Visual Aids Strive for vertical placement of visual aids.Give credit to the source if appropriate.
24 Organizing Report Data Deductive strategy (main ideas first)Inductive strategy (facts and discussion first)Chronological sequence (historical data)
25 Organizing Report Data Geographical or spatial arrangement (e.g., East, West, South, North, etc.)Topical or functional arrangement (e.g., duties of CEO, duties of general manager, etc.)Component or criteria arrangement (e.g., comparing two or more solution—two cities on a call centre short list)
26 Presenting the Final Report Prefatory PartsTitle flyTitle pageLetter or memo or of authorizationLetter or memo of transmittalTable of contentsExecutive summary or abstract
27 Presenting the Final Report Body of reportIntroduction or backgroundDiscussion of findingsSummary, conclusions, or recommendations
28 Presenting the Final Report Supplementary parts of a formal reportFootnotes or endnotesBibliographyAppendix