What country was Mendel from & What was his occupation? Austria, Augustinian monk
What type of organisms did Mendel experiment on? How many traits did he look at? Pea plants, 7
What did Mendel name his (a) parents, (b) children, and (c) grandchildren? a) P b) F1 c) F2
What was the difference between Mendel’s first and second set of experiments? 1 st experiment he only observed 1 trait. 2 nd experiment he observed 2 traits.
Describe Mendel’s experimental protocol. Cross fertilized truebreds exhibiting opposite traits to produce an F1 generation. Then, allowed F1 hybrids to self-fertilize to produce an F2 generation.
What is the difference between heterozygous & homozygous? Hetero: 2 different alleles (Hh) Homozygous: Same alleles (HH or hh)
What is the difference between a gene & allele? A gene is a segment of alleles that codes for a particular trait. An allele is the option within that gene. 2 alleles are inherited for every trait, 1 from mom and 1 from dad.
What is the difference between phenotype and genotype? Phenotype: Expressed trait (physical appearance) Genotype: Combination of alleles that specifies a particular trait (Gg)
What does polygenic mean? 2 or more genes code for a particular trait
What is pleiotropy? 1 genes codes (affects) many traits. i.e. sickle cell anemia
What percentage of the offspring would you expect to be tall if you crossed a homozygous tall plant with a short plant? (Tall is dominant) 100% tall
What percentage of the offspring would you expect to be tall if you crossed a heterozygous tall plant with a heterozygous tall plant? (Tall is dominant) 75% tall
If the chance of having a boy is 50% (or ½), what is the chance of having 2 boys? ½ X ½ = ¼ (25%) chance
What percentage of the offspring would you expect to be tall & yellow if you crossed a pure tall and pure yellow plant with a short and green plant? (Tall is dominant; yellow is dominant) 100% tall and yellow
What percentage of the offspring would you expect to be tall & yellow if you crossed a Heterozygous tall and yellow plant with a short and green plant? (Tall is dominant; yellow is dominant) 25% tall and yellow
Hair texture in humans shows incomplete dominance. The H allele is for curly, and h is for straight. An Hh person has wavy hair. What percentage of the offspring would you expect to have wavy hair if you crossed a Wavy haired female with a Straight haired male? 50% Hh (wavy hair)
Name 3 polygenic traits in humans. Eye color Height Skin color
Colorblindness is x-linked recessive. Cross a color-blind male with a female carrier. What are the chances that a son will be colorblind? 50% boys will be colorblind
Can a person with AB blood and a person with O blood have a child with type O blood? No! AB x O= 50% heterozygous A and 50% heterozygou B
Can a person heterozygous for type A blood and a person heterozygous for type B blood have 3 kids each with a different type of blood?
What is a pedigree? Chart showing traits passed through generations
How can you tell if the shading on a pedigree is for a dominant or recessive trait? Dominant never skips a generation
What is the genotype of II-3? (Use the letter A) Aa
What is the genotype of II-4? (Use the letter A) A?
Why is it difficult to create a pedigree for something like heart disease or cancer? Remember, genetics is heavily affected by environment. Especially for these two diseases, environmental factors affect the risks of both.
Final Question: State how sex is determined in: Humans Fruit Flies Bees
Final Question: State how sex is determined in: Humans – xx female / xy male Fruit Flies – xx female / xy male Bees – 32 female / 16 male