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Punctuation Commas Use commas to separate items in a series. Use a comma BEFORE conjunctions. Red, white, and blue.

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Presentation on theme: "Punctuation Commas Use commas to separate items in a series. Use a comma BEFORE conjunctions. Red, white, and blue."— Presentation transcript:

1 Punctuation Commas Use commas to separate items in a series. Use a comma BEFORE conjunctions. Red, white, and blue

2 Punctuation Short independent clauses in a series are separated by commas. We swam, we jogged, and we exercised. Independent clauses are usually separated by a semicolon. To prepare for the race, we swam…

3 Punctuation 1. Hispanic culture is complex diverse and rich in many historical traditions. 2. Preheat the oven beat the eggs and sift the flour. 3. The movie was long dull and humorless.

4 Punctuation 4. Alicia opened the door for the dog and the cat ran out. 5. It has been a vibrant vital part of American life. 6. They have traveled on land by sea and in the air.

5 Punctuation Use commas to set off nonessential clauses and nonessential participial phrases. Emilia Ortiz, who lives across the street, won a scholarship. The capital of Alabama is Montgomery, which is in the center of the state.

6 Punctuation Use a comma to separate two or more adjectives preceding a noun. I’ve had a long, hectic, tiring day. Use a comma before conjunctions when they join independent clauses. We got there on time, but Jeff was late.

7 Punctuation Rule 3/4 practice

8 Punctuation Use a comma after introductory elements. (p. 800) No, I haven’t had the exam yet. Use a comma after an introductory participial phrase. Calling for a timeout, the ref blew his whistle.

9 Punctuation Use commas to set off “interrupters,” or elements that interrupt a sentence. Direct address. Mother, will you… To separate items in dates and addresses. Saturday, June 21, 1991, Dad…

10 Punctuation Rule 5/6 practice

11 Punctuation Colons and Semicolons Use semis b/w two complete sentences if they are not joined by a conjunction. Use semi b/w independent clauses joined by conjunctive adverbs or transitional expressions.

12 Punctuation Ex. Leo is planning to be an engineer; however, he is also interested in art. Can also be used to separate two sentences joined by a conjunction if there are other commas. B/w items in series if there are other commas.

13 Punctuation semicolon

14 Punctuation Colons Use a colon to mean “note what follows.” Before a list of items (“as follows”) Before a long, formal statement. B/w hour and minute 9:55 B/w chapter and verse in biblical references. Psalms 8:9

15 Punctuation colon

16 Punctuation Apostrophes To form the possessive case of singular nouns, add an apostrophe and an s. (boy’s) Possessive of plural ending in s, add only the apostrophe. (boys’) Indefinite pronouns in possessive case require ‘ and s. (anyone’s)

17 Punctuation Apostrophe Two or more people possess something individually, each name is possessive. Katlin’s and Whitney’s books Contractions: use apostrophe to show where letters, words, or numerals have been omitted.

18 Punctuation Contractions Who is=who’sshe will=she’ll Of the clock=o’clock I am=I’m As a rule, only an –s is added to form plural of most letters and words referred to as words. Ws, ands BUT s’s and i’s

19 Punctuation apostrophe

20 Punctuation Hyphens Divide words at end of the line Compound words from twenty-one to ninety-nine and with fractions used as adjectives. Two-thirds majority With prefixes ex-, self-, and all- and the suffix -elect. With all prefixes before proper nouns or adjectives.

21 Punctuation Hyphens Compound adjective that precedes the noun it modifies. Well-organized paper Do not use hyphen if one of modifiers ends in –ly.

22 Punctuation hyphen

23 Punctuation Dashes Indicates an abrupt break in thought or speech or unfinished statement. Parentheses To enclose material of minor importance in a sentence.

24 Punctuation Dash/parenthesis

25 Quotation Marks Use quotation marks to enclose a direct quotation—someone’s exact words. Place at beginning and end of a direct quotation A direct quote is set off from the rest of the sentence by a comma, a question mark, or an exclamation point.

26 Quotation Marks Use a single quotation mark to enclose a quote within a quote.

27 Punctuation Quotation marks

28 Italics Use italics for titles of books, plays, films, periodicals, works of art, record albums, long musical compositions, TV programs, ships and aircraft.

29 Punctuation italics

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