Presentation on theme: "Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2004 Chapter Nine Sexual Orientation Diversity."— Presentation transcript:
Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2004 Chapter Nine Sexual Orientation Diversity
Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2004 Terms of Sexual Orientation - 1 Sexual Orientation The classification of individuals as heterosexual, bisexual, or homosexual based on their emotional, cognitive, and sexual attractions, as well as their self- identity and lifestyle. Heterosexuality Sexual orientation in which the predominance of emotional and sexual attraction is to persons of the other sex.
Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2004 Terms of Sexual Orientation - 2 Homosexuality Sexual orientation in which the predominance of emotional and sexual attractions to persons of the same sex. Bisexuality The emotional and sexual attraction to members of both sexes. LesBiGays A term that collectively refers to lesbians, gays, and bisexuals.
Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2004 Terms of Sexual Orientation - 3 Transgendered Individuals who express some characteristics other than their assigned gender or biological sex. Transgendered Individuals Persons who do not fit neatly into either the male or female category, or their behavior is not congruent with the norms and expectations of their sex.
Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2004 Conceptual Models of Sexual Orientation - 1 Dichotomous Model Model in which people are either heterosexual or homosexual Unidimensional Continuum Model Model in which sexual orientation is viewed on a continuum Multidimensional Model Views sexuality as a function of degrees of various components such as emotions, behaviors, and cognitions
Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2004 Conceptual Models of Sexual Orientation - 2 LesBiGay/Transgender Affirmative Model Model which has an emphasis on diversity and gender issues. Prevalence of Homosexuality, Heterosexuality, and Bisexuality The prevalence of homosexuality, heterosexuality, and bisexuality is difficult to determine. Due to embarrassment, a desire for privacy, or fear of social disapproval, many individuals are not willing to answer questions about their sexuality honestly. Sexual fluidity: erotic responses may vary according to the situation
Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2004 Theories of Sexual Orientation Biological Explanations Genetic Theories Perinatal Hormonal Theories Postpubertal Hormonal Theories Social/Cultural Explanations Parent-Child Interaction Theories Sexual Interaction Theories Sex-Role Theories
Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2004 Gay and Bisexual Identity Development - 1 Synthesized Model of Gay Identity Development
Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2004 Gay and Bisexual Identity Development - 2 Stages of Development Stage 1: First awareness or realization that one is “different” Stage 2: Test and exploration Stage 3: Identity acceptance Stage 4: Identity integration
Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2004 Coming Out - 1 Coming Out (A shortened form of “coming out of the closet”) Refers to the sequence of defining one’s self as homosexual and disclosing one’s self-identification to others Coming Out to One’s Self The process of accepting one’s bisexual identity may include confusion, refusal, exploration, acceptance.
Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2004 Coming Out - 2 Coming Out to Parents and Siblings Although the majority of families are neither totally rejecting nor totally accepting, parents must often grieve and obtain accurate information about gay lifestyles. Personal Choices: Disclosing One’s Homosexuality to Parents The decision to come out to one’s parents is related to the perceived risks/reactions of doing so.
Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2004 Coming Out - 3 Personal Choices: Would You Accept or Reject a Gay Son or Daughter? Parents are confronted with the decision of accepting or rejecting the homosexuality of their offspring. Coming Out to a Heterosexual Partner or Spouse and Children Many homosexuals in heterosexual relationships do not disclose their sexual identity for fear of rejection and loss of custody.
Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2004 Coming Out - 4 Sexual Questioning Diamond and Savin-Williams (2000) advocate shifting from the traditional coming out to an emphasis on the process of sexual development instead of on a particular outcome.
Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2004 Homosexual and Bisexual Relationships -1 Social and institutional supports for relationships is what most clearly distinguishes same-sex from heterosexual couples. Gay Male Relationships A common stereotype of gay men is that they do not seek monogamous long-term relationships. However, most gay men prefer long-term relationships.
Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2004 Homosexual and Bisexual Relationships -2 Lesbian Relationships Most gay women value stable monogamous relationships that are emotionally, as well as sexually, satisfying. Bisexual Relationships Bisexuality is one of the least understood aspects of sexual orientation. So strong is the tendency to dichotomize sexual orientation that many people simply do not believe it exists. Margaret Nichols
Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2004 Sexual Orientation and HIV Infection Most worldwide HIV infection occurs through heterosexual transmission. However, in the United States, HIV infection remains the most threatening STD for male homosexuals and bisexuals.
Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2004 Heterosexuality, Homonegativity, and Homophobia - 1 Heterosexism The belief, stated or implied, that heterosexuality is superior to homosexuality. Homonegativity Construct that refers to antigay responses including negative feelings, thoughts, and behavior. Homophobia Negative emotional responses toward, and aversion to, homosexuals.
Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2004 Heterosexuality, Homonegativity, and Homophobia - 2 Sources for homonegativity and homophobia in the United States: Religion Marital and procreative bias Concern about HIV and AIDS Rigid gender roles Psychiatric labeling
Copyright Atomic Dog Publishing, 2004 Discrimination Against Homosexuals Discrimination against lesbians and gays can occur at the individual or group level, and is found in the workplace, school, legal system, and in family matters.