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HINARI/E-Resources and Internet Searching (module 1.2)

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Presentation on theme: "HINARI/E-Resources and Internet Searching (module 1.2)"— Presentation transcript:

1 HINARI/E-Resources and Internet Searching (module 1.2)

2 MODULE 1.2 E-Resources and Internet Searching Instructions - This part of the: course is a PowerPoint demonstration intended to introduce you to E-Resources and Internet Searching. module is off-line and is intended as an information resource for reference use.

3 Table of Contents E-resources Use of E-resources Types of Information/E-Journals and Journal Impact Factor Gateways, Databases and Search Engines Open Access and DSpace Searching techniques and strategies Boolean searching Advanced searching

4 Why Use E-Resources? An up-to-date resource Convenience Extra featurese.g. search facilities, links to other databases, supplementary information Access to a wider range of material than might otherwise be available within the local medical library

5 Electronic Library Resources Any library or information resources that can be accessed electronically, e.g. –electronic journals –scholarly databases –electronic books –hybrid digital collections –Internet gateways and search engines Free or fee-based access

6 Electronic Journal Formats Full-text/whole journal available –Electronic version of print –Electronic only Partial full-text/selected articles only Table of contents/citations/abstracts only Citations only Source of the previous three slides is the INASP Training materials on Electronic Library Resources

7 Open Access Journals Open Access (OA) journals are scholarly journals that are available without financial or technical barriers other than Internet access Articles either are directly accessible from the publisher (e.g. PLOS) or archived in a repository (e.g. PubMed Central) In most cases, the copyright is owned by the author, not the publisher Some OA journals are subsidized by academic or governmental institutions

8 OA Journal Options Fee-based OA journals require payment by the author - often paid by a grant or institution; access is free to all users – these OA journals accept articles from authors in low-income countries; the number varies from journal to journal; peer-reviewers (theoretically) do not know if authors have requested fee waivers Delayed open access journals where the articles are available between 6 – 24 months Hybrid open access journals contain some current articles that are free access

9 Sponsored by several governments, GOAP is a current snapshot of the status of Open Access (OA) to scientific information around the world. It is organized by region, funding mandates, key organizations, thematic areas plus OA news articles and key publications.

10 Developed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, DSPACE ( is a software to build open access repositories - for academic and non-profit organizations. The software is free/downloadable from this site, can be installed out of the box and customized locally.

11 From this DSPACE page, you can download the software and documentation plus learn about new features and improvements.

12 This is the initial page of the DSpace at the University of West Indies repository. The site is organized Communities and there is a keyword search engine and other browse options. Note that there is a link to Journals Permitting Archival of Preprints of Published Papers.

13 We have displayed the Faculty of Medical Sciences Community home page. Note the various Sub- communities and Recent Submissions.

14 We have displayed the College of Medical Sciences Community home page from the University of Makerere, Uganda. Note the similar Collections and Sub-communities.

15 The final dspace repository example is from the Antwerp Institute of Tropical Medicine. Note the various Communities that deal with different aspects of Tropical Medicine.

16 Types of Electronic Journals Academic –Refereed journals –Review journals –Bulletins Non-academic –Magazines –Newspapers

17 Refereed journals Example: Social Science & Medicine Used to: –disseminate research findings –find out about research by others in your field –identify methodologies for your own work Features –written by researchers and experts –aimed at researchers and experts –articles always cite sources –peer reviewed Strengths/weaknesses –high-quality, reliable information –may be slow to be published due to review process –often fee-based access/may be available via HINARI


19 Review journals Example: Reviews in Medical Virology Used to –give an overview of the current literature in a specific research area or discipline Features –give an overview of the current literature in a specific research area or discipline –titles usually contain Review, Reviews, Advances in, Current opinion in, Progress in, Trends in –have already done much of the literature searching for you


21 Bulletins Example: Bulletin of the World Health Organization Used for: –making announcements to a specific audience –up-to-date information in a very specific area Features –written by in-house staff, or staff writers –may be issued as required, sometimes intermittently –contain short reports Strengths/weaknesses –very up-to-date –standard very variable


23 Journal Impact Factor Is from Journal Citation Report (JCR), a product of Thomson ISI (Institute for Scientific Information) is a measure reflecting the average number of citations to articles published in science and social science journals calculated yearly for journals indexed in Thomsons Journal Citation Reports used as a measure for the relative importance of a journal within its field; journals with higher impact factors are deemed to be more important than those with lower ones

24 Impact Factor for a 2010 journal Is the average number of times published papers are cited up to two years after publication A = the number of times articles published in 2008-9 were cited in indexed journals during 2010 B = the number of citable items published in 2008- 2009 within a discipline; citable items are usually articles, reviews, proceedings, or notes; not editorials or Letters-to-the-Editor impact factor 2010 = A/B ( published in 2011)

25 Journal Impact Factor - Issues Percentage of total citations occurring in the first two years after publication varies highly among discipline (higher in biological sciences) Citations to an article often are made in papers written by the author(s) of the original article Journal can adopt editorial policies that increase its impact factor eg editorials (not citable) vs. short original articles (citable); review articles are cited more often Impact Factor scores can influence promotion and tenure at universities throughout the world

26 Non-academic resources Magazines –Entertainment, information about popular culture, product information –Easy to read, entertaining, information is lightweight and not always reliable Newspapers –Up-to-the minute information, current affairs, debate –Can be valuable sources of certain kinds of information but inherent problems of all newspapers

27 Internet Search tools Which search tools are needed? –Gateways –Databases –Search Engines

28 Gateway a node or network that serves as an entrance to another network organize information in a structured way in general or subject categories examples: –Yahoo –WHO A-Z health topics list –Essential Health Links –HINARI/AGORA/OARE

29 Database a collection of information organized in such a way that a computer can quickly select desired pieces of data an electronic filing system traditional databases are organized by fields, records and files example: PubMed - a free search tool to over 19 million citations

30 Search Engine a program that searches documents for specified keywords and returns a list of documents where the keywords were found on the WWW, utilizes automated robotics to gather and index information examples Google Google Scholar (more academic) Yahoo

31 The Google search engine This is the Google search engine. Type your query into the Google Search box and click on the Google Search button.

32 Search results on Google This is how Google presents the results of your HINARI search. Follow the links to the websites you wish to visit.

33 Google Scholar provides a simple way to broadly search for scholarly literature. You can search across many disciplines and sources: peer-reviewed papers, theses, books, abstracts and articles, from academic publishers, professional societies, preprint repositories, universities and other scholarly organizations.

34 HINARI INARI HINARI1` In Google Scholar, the HINARI results are either an article about the program or one with HINARI being the authors name.

35 We have displayed the Advanced Scholar Search option of Google Scholar. Note the various options for refining a search and also that you can change the number of results per page.

36 Google (search engine) Advantages Searches articles, books and webpages Has advanced search options Can limit search by dates, document types, language, domain and more Disadvantages No indexing terms Huge retrieval of almost any topic No ability to select citations for downloading or printing Built in relevancy ranking based on times cited Cannot limit to journal articles

37 Google Scholar (search engine) Advantages Searches journals, books and more academic sources Can download individual citations into bibliographic managers Contains citing information with links to sources citing a specific term Disadvantages No indexing terms Huge retrieval of almost any topic No ability to select citations for downloading or printing Built in relevancy ranking based on times cited that… May result in bias toward older literature

38 PubMed (database) Advantages Well indexed using Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Can 'explode' terms Contains 5,419 current journals in health sciences Includes citations of e- journals prior to publication Can download info to bibliographic managers Can select citations to download or print Disadvantages Access limited almost exclusively to basic and health sciences journals that are indexed in the database Does not search full- text of articles

39 CINAHL (database) Advantages Well indexed and can 'explode' terms Contains 2,960 journals in nursing and allied health plus books, dissertations and other items Very current Many ways of sorting retrieval Can select citations to download or print Disadvantages Access limited to nursing and allied health materials that are indexed in the database Does not search full- text for most items

40 Search: Asthma in Pregnancy (performed 03 December 2009) Google: 11,800,000 citations; first citation – October 2005; Google Scholar: 79,000 citations; first citation – December 2000; American Journal of Medicine (first 2009 citation is 18 th ) PubMed: 2076; first citation – December 2009; Obstetrics and Gynecology CINAHL: 567 in basic search; 467 in advanced search; first citation – November 2009; Journal of Pediatrics Judkins, Dolores Zegar So You Want to use Google… MLANEWS, February 2010

41 Why Search Strategy is Important? Health care includes the provision of information to consumers or professionals (reliable, accurate, up-to- date) Information explosion- billions of documents in the WWW; hard to find the needle in the hay stack and know which source is best for a specific situation; Evidence-Based Practice - clinicians are not using enough evidence in practice Systematic search strategy should be adopted when dealing with clinical questions to avoid information malpractice


43 Example (Steps 1-4) 1.Ask: What health problems are associated with water pollution? 2.Need: scholarly primary research 3.Main Concepts: health, water, pollution 4.Select terms: –Broader terms: health, environmental degradation, agricultural management, –Synonyms: health, illness, disease, etc. water, rivers, lakes, sea, domestic water, etc. pollution, oil spills, chemical, biological, toxicity, etc –Alternative spellings: none –Plurals: river(s), lake(s), disease(s) –Capitals: e.g. name of a specific lake, disease, region


45 Types Source

46 Tertiary Sources ADVANTAGESDISADVANTAGES Easy accessLag Time Ease of useOutdated ConciseIncomplete information Relatively inexpensiveIncorrect interpretation ADVANTAGESDISADVANTAGES Rapid access to the primary literatureLag time Generally high standard journalsCommand language varies Ability to perform complex searchesProficient search skills are needed Routine updates on selected topics (alerts) Can be expensive Secondary Sources Primary Sources ADVANTAGESDISADVANTAGES Original dataLarge volume data Unbiased informationTime consuming Select a Source (Step 5)

47 Search Construction

48 Boolean (Search) Operators Connect terms and locate records containing matching terms Inserted in a search box – AND, OR, NOT Must be in UPPERCASE when used AND, NOT operators are processed in a left- to right sequence. These are processed first before the OR operators OR operators are also processed from left- to-right

49 AND Operator (to combine two concepts and narrow a search) the AND operator is used to combine two concepts e.g. hip AND fracture – in the shaded area; retrieves items containing all the search terms



52 AND Operator (to combine three concepts) the AND operator is used to combine three concepts e.g. hip AND fracture AND elderly – in the shaded area.



55 OR Operator (info containing one or other term; will broaden a search) renal OR kidney – in the shaded area with the overlap in the middle having both search terms; retrieves items containing either search term or both search terms



58 NOT Operator (in one term or the other - will narrow a search) pig NOT guinea – in the shaded area; eliminates items in 2 nd term (guinea) or both terms



61 Other search engine functions Phrase or proximity searching: … or (…) – allows you to search for an exact phraseinformation literacy prevention and (malaria parasite) Truncation/wildcards: * or $ –allow you to search alternative spellings child* for child OR childs OR children parasite* for parasite OR parasites Alternate spellings: ? –can be used to substitute for characters anywhere in a word wom ? n would search for woman and women

62 Africa AND (HIV OR tuberculosis) HIV tuberculosis Africa Africa AND (HIV or tuberculosis) – in the shaded area The (OR) operator retains items in each term and the AND operator is used to combine two concepts


64 More Search Techniques Field Specific Searching –author, title, journal, date, url, etc. Language Restrictions, Humans or Animals, Gender and other limits (to be discussed in Module 4.2 – PubMed LIMITS) Relevancy Ranking –a grading that gives extra weight to a document when the search terms appear in the headline or are capitalized –every found document is calculated as 100% multiply by the angle formed by weights vector for request and weights vector for document found

65 Search Strategy material developed by: Irena Bond, Library Manager Associate Professor of Library and Learning Resources Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences This is the end of Module 1.2 There is a Work Book to accompany this part of the module. The workbook will take you through a live session covering the topics included in this demonstration with working examples. Updated 2012 11

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