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MODULE Basic Information on HINARI, AGORA and OARE and the Internet

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Presentation on theme: "MODULE Basic Information on HINARI, AGORA and OARE and the Internet"— Presentation transcript:

1 Basic Information on HINARI, AGORA, OARE, ARDI (Research4Life) and the Internet (module 1.1)

2 MODULE 1.1 Basic Information on HINARI, AGORA and OARE and the Internet
Instructions - This part of the: course is a PowerPoint demonstration intended to introduce you to Basic Internet Concepts. module is off-line and is intended as an information resource for reference use.

3 Table of Contents Background – HINARI, AGORA, OARE, ARDI
Basic Internet Concepts Structure of the Internet Common Internet Protocols Technical Requirements for HINARI *Trainer Notes Introduce yourself and welcome everyone to course. Ask participants to introduce themselves and give some information on what they expect to gain from the workshop. Distribute the manuals and discuss briefly each item on the list. The topics to be covered in this review are: Basic definition of Internet terms and concepts that are routinely used in discussions on using the Internet. A brief history of the Internet will be provided. The structure of the Internet and the tools that drive the use of the resources will be covered including the World Wide Web and its components. Types of Information resources and guidelines for their evaluation will be addressed. Search tools and techniques for accessing information will be covered. Researching Health and Biomedical Information on the WWW.

4 For further information on all three programs, go to the url listed at the top of this slide. Each program has the same eligibility but your institution must register for each program separately.

5 Objectives of Research4Life (R4L)
To connect developing world researchers with the international scientific community To reduce the ‘publishing gap’ and improve the quality of locally produced articles and journals Ultimately – improve health, food security and environment in relation to Millennium Development Goals of 2015 In this initial discussion, we will have an overview of HINARI and its partner programs. If your institution includes programs that would benefit from either agricultural research (AGORA) or environmental research (OARE) e-journals, you can register for these. Each program requires a separate registration and, for Band 2 countries, the $1000 payment. The following slides will summarize each project.

6 HINARI (Health Access to Research programme)
Online portal to publishers Coordinated by WHO/Yale University, USA Free/Low cost to >100 countries/territories Over 11,400 e-journals, 18,500 e-books and 70 information resources, 380 publishers Medicine and health 5300+ institutions registered Data:

7 AGORA (Access to Global Online Research in Agriculture)
Online portal to publishers Coordinated by FAO/Cornell University, USA Free/Low cost to >100 countries/territories 3400 journals, 2000 books, 20 information resources / 95 publishers Agriculture, food fisheries and related sciences 2000 institutions registered Data:


9 OARE (Online Access to Research in the Environment)
Online portal to access environmental information Coordinated by UNEP/Yale University Free/Low cost to >100 countries/territories Over 4800 journals, 8300 books, / 110 publishers Environment and related sciences 1800 institutions registered Data:

10 Note that the initial pages of each program are similar
Note that the initial pages of each program are similar. This also is true for the access to the journals once you have used the unique User Name and Password for your institution. Remember that each program that your institution registers for has a unique User Name and password. These User Names and Passwords should be distributed to all staff and/or students at the institution.

11 ARDI (Access to Research for Development and Innovation)
Launched in July 2009, aRDi is a program developed by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) and its publishing partners in the fields of science and technology For developing countries – to support global knowledge economy and creation/development of new solutions to technical challenges on local and global level Became R4L partner program - July 2011 Eligible institutions are patent offices and academic and research institutions 14 publishers; access to 2000 journals, 5000 books, 14 publishers


13 Eligibility ( ) Institutions in countries with GNI (gross national income) per capita below $1600 or HDI (human development index) less than 0.63 are eligible for free access (Group A) Institutions in countries with GNI per capita between $1601-$5000 or HDI less than 0.67 pay a fee of $1000 per year (Band 2/Group B) Some publishers opt out of this option and do not allow access to their journals For details, see Initially, the GNI levels were $1000 for Band 1/Group A and $ for Band 2/Group B. In 2008, these levels were increased to reflect inflation since the beginning of the program in In January 2012, the human development index has been added. Consequently, 17 countries moved from Band 2 (Group B) to Band 1 (Group A).

14 HINARI Registrations per Country

15 Who is eligible for R4L Programmes

16 Primary Target Audiences
Eligible categories of institutions are: national universities research institutes professional schools (medicine, nursing, pharmacy, public health, dentistry) teaching hospitals government: ministries and agencies national medical libraries locally based non-governmental agencies All permanent and visiting faculty, staff members and students are entitled to access and can obtain the institutional User Name and Password. Recently, eligibility for not-for-profit agencies has been broadened. Those primarily funded by or affiliated with international agencies or non-governmental organizations are not eligible.

17 Partners Program Partners Principal Publishers
Elsevier Science Springer Wiley-Blackwell Sage Taylor & Francis Lippincott/Williams & Wilkins BioOne Oxford University Press Nature Publishing Other science/technical/ medical publishers Program Partners World Health Organization - WHO Food and Agriculture Org. – FAO United Nations Environment Programme – UNEP World Intellectual Property Organization - WIPO Yale University Library Mann Library/Cornell University International Association of Scientific, Technical and Medical Publishers – STM Information Training and Outreach Centre for Africa National Library of Medicine Microsoft Librarians Without Borders®/MLA This slide outlines HINARI’s extensive ‘public-private’ collaboration.

18 What is the Internet? Publicly accessible network of interconnected computers which communicate via software protocol standards Easily accessed (via modem and phone line, ISDN, direct cable landline, satellite) Expanding global infrastructure; is pan-national (no central control) Regarding information delivery, the most significant change since the development of the printing press in the 15th century! Basic Internet Terminology What is the Internet? The Internet is a network of computers around the world that are linked together by telecommunications in order to share information. It is a network of networks. Different types of computers make up the network. Some computers contain information(host computers) or servers, others (clients) access the host or server to retrieve needed information. The Internet is a network of Computer Networks. Each computer on the network has a unique address, the Internet Protocol address (IP). It is made up of lots of servers and clients that hold and exchange information all over the world. The network is self organizing and self governing. There is no group that or individual that heads the network of net works. The computers are able to communicate with each other because they use a common set of rules or protocols The protocols Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) allows the connection and exchange of information between computers. There are a number of Internet protocols that make communication and information retrieval possible on the WWW. Telecommunications: The computers are able to communicate and exchange information because they use a common set of rules or protocols. These protocols allow us to connect to a remote computer(server) and access the information on it and perform any number of activities. The computer Networks communicate with each other.They are able to communicate because they use a common set of rules known as Internet Protocols.

19 This Map how the Internet is distributed across the entire world
This Map how the Internet is distributed across the entire world. North America and Europe concentrate the two largest groups of Internet assets with a total share of 22.5% for Europe and doubling this number 55.9% for North America. Asia is the next region in the list with a share of 14%. The image above uses colored dots to represent the distribution and is expressed in number of IP addresses per dot. Internet World Statistics 30 June 2010

20 Internet Growth Exponential growth for the last few years
In 1993, 90,000 people used the Internet; in 2002, 600 million people used the Internet; in 2007, over 1 billion people used the Internet Hardware costs are decreasing year on year While the recent increase of usage in developing countries has been significant, the overall % of users is significantly less than industrialized countries.

21 INASP Cascading Workshop: Introduction to Using the Internet: Module 2
Copyright INASP – see: for more details. 21

22 Internet Architecture
Web is based on a client/server architecture using HTTP: Hypertext Transfer Protocol Set of rules for communication between Web clients and servers Code is located inside <……> <a href=“”>HINARI</a> tells the web browser to open the HINARI website Give me file x Computer on the Internet holding information - remote “server” Here it is Desktop computer - “client”

23 Server/Client Interface
SERVERS Hardware Software Software Protocols CLIENTS Hardware Software

24 Internet Services The World Wide Web or a system of interlinked hypertext documents accessed via the Internet (multiple delivery options) Search tools via WWW (search engines, databases, gateways and portals) Communication ( ) Retrieval/information transfer (File Transfer Protocol - FTP)

25 The World-Wide Web WWW, web, W3, World-Wide Web
Often what people mean by the Internet Based on hypertext - the ability to link text and documents dynamically and interactively Uses hypertext markup language - HTML The WWW is a global standard Can use text, graphics, sound and video Anyone can link to and make use of the web

26 Delivery: Dial Up Connection
International Gateway Link Phone Line Internet ISP Server Client Computer With Modem Speed of line Quality of line Speed of connection modem speed: usually 56 kilobytes per second dial into Internet Service Provider (ISP) quality of telephone line 26

27 Delivery: Broadband Connection
FULL – TIME CONNECTION Leased Line Permanent Connection Internet LAN Server Speed of line Quality of line Local Area Network • Speed of connection – LAN Server speed – Bandwidth (minimally 256kbts/s to  Mbit/s) – Mode of link (radio, leased line, satellite) LAphone line 27

28 Access Speed Issues (Bandwidth)
INASP Cascading Workshop: Introduction to Using the Internet: Module 2 Access Speed Issues (Bandwidth) Cables vary in speed and amount of information they can carry (bandwidth) Sometimes cables are slow in carrying information or lose the signal, especially if information must cross long distances too much traffic on cable capacity (bandwidth) is low long distances too much traffic on the cable cable capacity, or bandwidth, is low When the desktop client and the remote server are handing information back and forth, the information is being transmitted via a variety of ways. Some of these ways are wireless through broadcast signals (like radio), but most often the information is transmitted through cables of varying materials and speeds like telephone wires or fiber optic cables. You can think of these cables as pipes that, because of their varying materials and sizes and ability to handle traffic, are able to carry more or less information. The cable’s information carrying capacity is bandwidth. If you are connected to the Internet through a telephone line then your bandwidth is much lower than someone connected to the Internet through a large cable like a T1 line, and consequently you may not receive as much information as fast or you may have difficulty connecting to large resources at all. For example, if you are trying to download a file, if you are on a high bandwidth connection, it may take only minutes. However, if you are on low bandwidth connection, it may take hours or may not download at all. If you have used AGORA or other Internet resources and have noticed difficulties with the length of time it takes to log on, navigate to other websites, or download articles, it may be because of bandwidth. We will discuss these issues further later in the workshop. Copyright INASP – see: for more details. 28

29 Internet Requirements for HINARI
128 kbps, local area network (LAN), or cable connection required. A hard-wired full-time Internet connection (T1 or better) enables the fastest downloads. Satellite or network connections, though slower, are also adequate. Web Browser - Internet Explorer version 4.0 or Mozilla Firefox 1.0

30 Web Browser Browser is the software that is used to view the Web
Standard browser features scrolling, back, forward, stop, home, refresh Navigation - in built features back, forward, home, go to, yes, no Search on a single web page Multiple Web browser windows Besides Internet Explorer, there are other options

31 Besides Internet Explorer, two other viable browser options are Mozilla Firefox and Google Chrome that was released in September 2008.

32 Browser Customization
Toolbar options Link to a specific homepage Using the right click mouse button Using favorites or bookmarks Adding Organizing Editing

33 Adobe Reader for PDFs You will need an Adobe Reader to view journal articles in PDF (Portable Document Format). Adobe Reader can be downloaded for FREE from the Adobe web site:


35 Java You will need Java to view some articles especially in HINARI
Java can be downloaded for FREE from the following website:


37 This page is being viewed with an Internet Browser
This page is being viewed with an Internet Browser. Browsers allow computers to read Hyper Text Mark- up Language OR HTML. The Internet Address or URL is typed in the address field in Internet Explorer. In this example we have entered the URL - - for the HINARI website and clicked on the ENTER or RETURN key.

38 Hypertext links Hypertext links are usually denoted by underlined text. Links to other pages are usually underlined or in another colour of text.

39 Forward and back navigation buttons
The arrow buttons on the tool bar allow users to move Back and Forward to pages within the website. The back and forward buttons allow you to navigate to previous pages within a website.

40 Home page button The House icon on the tool bar will take you back to the browser’s default Home Page. This is the end of Module 1.1 There is a Work Book to accompany this part of the module. The workbook will take you through a live session covering the topics included in this demonstration with working examples. Updated In Internet Explorer, the HOME button takes you back to the browser’s default home page.

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