Presentation on theme: "Progressivism 1890-1920. The Progressive Spirit Progressivism – wanting to change the way a society works with a focus on equality. Progressives were."— Presentation transcript:
The Progressive Spirit Progressivism – wanting to change the way a society works with a focus on equality. Progressives were people that were U.S. citizens, from the middle or upper class, and had a college education. Problems Progressives saw that needed to be fixed: Corrupt local governments Poor working conditions Monopolies Civil Rights (Multiple groups) Lack of government regulation of services and products John Dewey - helped to reform the public education system so that students could become functioning citizens in society, not just learn facts.
Finding Inspiration to reform McClure’s Magazine – an investigative magazine that wrote articles exposing problems with our society and government. Muckrakers – term given to journalists who tried to expose the dirty side of the society. (raking up the crap) Lincoln Steffens – Famous Muckraker, wrote “The Shame of the Cities.” Exposed the disparity of wealth in cities and working conditions in factories. Standard oil – John D. Rockefeller owns a monopoly on most oil companies. To do that he overran other oil companies. Ida Tarbell – wrote about Rockefeller’s business practices which exposed the way monopolies are created.
Famous Writers of the time Theodore Dreiser – wrote a book about how workers were brutalized. Edith Wharton – the effects of an elite society on lower class societies. Herbert Croly – argued that government should use it’s regulation and taxation powers to promote the welfare of all of it’s citizens. Section 2
Reforming the workplace In 1900 the average laborer worked nearly 10 hours a day, 6 days a week, for about $1.50 a day. Women and children earned even less. Few child laborers had ever attended school or could read. Florence Kelley – worked to persuade Illinois legislature to ban child labor, and limit women’s hours. Triangle Shirtwaist Factory – 1911 – 500 employees, mostly young Jewish and Italian immigrants, Most fire doors were locked and only 2 stairways were created because the factory owners were afraid the workers might steal their products. More than 140 workers were killed in the incident.
Progressivism Continues… Freedom of contract – Workers weren’t allowed to negotiate their working terms and conditions. Muller vs. Oregon – upheld labor restrictions for women. Closed shop – when all employees must belong to a union. No other options. Open shop – when employees had a choice of belonging to a union. (Teachers) Socialism – Governments control most or all aspects of society.
Labor Unions Evolve AFL – American Federation of Labor – increased union membership in businesses. ILGWU – International Ladies’ Garment Workers Union. Direct result of the Triangle Shirtwaist incident. IWW – Industrial Workers of the World. Union that opposed capitalism and heavily favored workers rights.
Reforming Society Progressives felt that cleaning up our cities would create better citizens in the long run. City planning – ideas to redevelop cities with the most modern technology. Daniel Burnham – architect who designed a lot of the most famous structures in multiple major cities around the country. Tenement owners were forced to take care of their immigrant families. Tax dollars were spent on playgrounds, parks, and better housing.
Moral Reform Progressives also wanted to “clean up” immoral behavior like drinking. They pushed for a new law called “Prohibition.” It wouldn’t pass until the 1920’s, but politicians and reformers both had this idea in the forefront of politics for decades. The idea was, if people stopped drinking, there would be fewer poor people and families would stay together longer. Women reformers and churches were among the biggest supporters of this amendment. Many movies that only cost 5-10 cents for multiple shows were also dubbed immoral for their steamy scenes. These movie tickets and short shows were called “nickelodeons.”
Progressivism and Racism Many of these new changes were not included for minorities. W.E.B. Du Bois – Black man who graduated from Harvard. Progressive. Wrote essays about what it was like being Black in America and how to properly reform society. His stance was – both sides need to change and that change needs to happen soon for both Whites and Blacks to get what they want. He wanted Blacks to educate themselves, rather than focus on discrimination laws like Black codes and Jim Crow laws. Booker T. Washington – Black man, educated. Progressive. He wrote essays ad gave speeches to Black audiences urging them to not push the white folks too quickly, but to rather wait until the time is right. Du Bois also created the N.A.A.C.P. – or National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. This organization sought to end racial discrimination, mainly through court cases.
Progressivism, Native Americans, and Immigrants Native Americans also organized during this time. Society of American Indians – group of middle class Native Americans that assimilated into American Society and wanted the same for their fellow tribes. Not all tribes followed, but it set the foundation for future battles with the government. Progressives both wanted to help immigrants and criticized them for their behavior. They wanted to Americanize immigrants who worked in factories and lived in slums. They got mixed opinions on these ideas. Some groups went along with them, and some rejected them because they disrespected their culture.