2 Tool for Analysis As a student, we ask you to analyze Analysis requiresunderstandinginterpretationevaluation
3 Literary Lenses Literary Theories Critical Theories Literary ApproachesCritical ApproachesInterpretive MethodsAll “names” mean the same thing: a way of reading with a particular focus
4 Literary Lenses Formalist New Critical (New Criticism) Historical Archetypal/MythologicalFeministMarxist (Sociological)Psychological
5 More Literary Lenses New Historical Biographical Reader-Response DeconstructionistThere’s more. . .
6 Reader-Response Theory Transactional experience of readingReader makes meaning based on his/her own experiences and knowledgeEmphasis on connections to the reader’s worldUnconcerned with author’s intent
7 Reader-Response Theory CAPTRejects the notion that a single “correct” reading exists for a literary workNot “all” readings are permissible (meaning is based on logical, text-based interpretations)
8 What do you “see” through the reader-response lens?
9 What is your analysis? Using the reader-response approach, what do you think about thisadvertisement?
10 Feminist Theory Also called Gender Criticism Examines how sexual identity influences the interpretation of literary worksCentral precept that patriarchal attitudes have resulted in literature full of “male-produced” assumptions
11 Feminist TheoryExamines how images of men and women reflect or reject the social forces that “feed” inequalityAttempts to combat attitudes by questioning
13 Archetypal Criticism Also called Mythological Criticism Emphasizes the “recurrent universal patterns underlying most literary works”The ArchetypeViews literature in a broad context
14 Common Female Archetypes THE EARTH MOTHER. Symbolic of fruition, abundance, and fertility; this character offers spiritual and emotional nourishment to those with whom she comes in contactTHE TEMPTRESS. Characterized by sensuous beautyTHE PLATONIC IDEA. This woman is a source of inspiration and a spiritual ideaTHE UNFAITHFUL WIFE. A woman, married to a man she sees as a dull and unimaginative, is physically attracted to a more virile and desirable man
16 Historical CriticismSeeks to understand a literary work by investigating the social, cultural, and intellectual context that produced it (includes the author’s biographical information)Key goal is to understand the effect of a literary work upon its original audience
17 New Critical Approach Also called Formalist Criticism & New Criticism Regards literature as a “unique form of human knowledge that needs to be examined on its own terms”Work itselfElements of form: style, structure, tone, imagery, symbolism, etc
18 New Critical ApproachPrimary goal is to determine how literary elements work together with content to shape an effect on the readerAP Literature (college professors love this approach)
19 Psychological Approach Uses the study of the mind and behavior to view a character (or sometimes the author)Asks“Why is the character feeling this way?”“Why is the character acting this way?”“What is motivating these things?”
20 Psychological Approach Is Holden “normal”?Is there a disconnect between reality and the world he imagines?What’s the problem?How is Holden dealing with it?