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Bell Ringer Which of the following statements do you most agree:

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1 Bell Ringer Which of the following statements do you most agree:
Westward expansion was an inevitable and positive process. Westward expansion was immoral and unfair because of the way it affected Native Americans. Westward expansion was a process of its time and cannot be judged by modern standards.

2 The South and West Transformed 1865 - 1900
Chapter 6

3 Section 1: The New South

4 Chapter 6.1: The New South Objectives
Explain how the southern economy changed in the late 1800s. Analyze how southern farmers consolidated their political power. Describe the experience of African Americans in the changing South.

5 Industries and Cities Grow
The South Remained largely agricultural and poor after the Civil War Farming became more diversified; grain, tobacco, and fruit crops (small farms replaced large plantations)

6 Railroads Link Cities and Towns
To combat economic isolation, southerners lobbied the federal government for more rail building

7 Southern Economic Recovery in Limited
Sustained economic development requires resources, labor, and capital investment. (industry is a three legged stool. Public education was limited in the South, there were few technical and engineering schools

8 Southern Farmers Face Hard Times
Cash Crop – products grown not for there use but sold for cash Cotton remained a staple crop after the Civil War and during the war many European textile factories found other sources (depressed prices)

9 Farms Band Together Farmers’ Alliance – farmers in Texas in the 1870 began to organize as a group for lower prices for supplies (lobbied for lower transport cost and loan rates)

10 Black Southerners Gain and Lose
Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth amendments gave many gains that were stifled by the courts. Voting, Education, businesses, purchasing power, farmer groups (Federal Laws)

11 White Backlash Begins Ku Klux Klan used terror and violence
Civil Rights Act of 1875 – congress guaranteed black patrons the right to ride trains and use public facilities Supreme Court ruled that these were local issues

12 Bell Work: Vocab Using Chapter 6.2 (pg. 160), Describe in detail the following terms & people. reservation Chief Joseph Assimilate Dawes General Allotment Act

13 Section 2: Westward Expansion & the American Indians

14 Chapter 6.2: Objectives Compare the ways Native Americans & white settlers viewed & used the land. Describe the conflicts between white settlers & Indians. Evaluate the impact of the Indian Wars.

15 Cultures Under Pressure
The federal government forced Native Americans west past the Mississippi to lands they were to have FOREVER during the 1840’s.

16 Cultures Under Pressure
Westward expansion would soon dissolved this promise “Great American Desert” Native Americans had many diverse cultures influenced by geography Pacific North west – fish and forests South hunter-gatherers South West – arid lands Pueblo people Plains – buffalo (Natives saw themselves as part of nature)

17 Threatened by Advancing Settlers
President Jackson moved the Cherokees off their land in Georgia and onto the Great Plains (Whites were discouraged form contact with the Native Americans) Gold and Silver Reservations – specific areas set aside by the government for Indians’ use

18 New Settlers and Native Americans Clash
Red River War – 1874; Indians attack Texans. Marked end of Southern Buffalo herds. Opened Western Panhandle of Texas to settlers. Final defeat of southern Plains Indians. Sand Creek Massacre – 1864; Colorado militia killed a camp of unarmed Cheyenne/Arapaho Indians, whom were under protection. New Settlers and Native Americans Clash Fetterman Massacre – 1866; Red Cloud (Sioux) lured Capt. Fetterman/troops into an ambush. U.S. I. P. C. – lasting peace would come only if N.A. assimilated. Little Big Horn – 1876; Prospectors Vs. Sioux (Crazy horse & Sitting Bull). Custer sent to drive Indians out. Sioux kill Custer/250 men. Fort Laramie Treaty – 1868; U.S. no road through Sioux land/abandon 3 forts. Indians live on reservation w/support of gov’t. Nez Perces – 1877; U.S. attempts to move Christian Indians. Chief Joseph leads refugees 1,300 miles to Canada. Surrender short. Wounded Knee – 1890; Ghost Dance revival. U.S. arrest Sitting Bull to stop. Troops sent after fleeing Indians. All 100 Indians killed. Seals Indian demise.

19 The End of the Indian Wars
Red River War – U.S. failed to fulfill the “Treaty of Medicine Lodge,” and keep white buffalo hunters off Indian land

20 Battle of the Little Big Horn
Sitting Bull – famed fighter, trained holy man, first ever chief of the seven bands Battle of the Little Big Horn – led by Crazy Horse, Custer and all of his men were killed

21 Chief Joseph Chief Joseph – led a group of refugees to Canada 1,300 miles

22 Wounded Knee Wounded Knee – sealed the Indians demise after being weakened more than 100 men women and children were killed

23 The Government Promotes Assimilation
Assimilated – to be absorbed into the main culture of a society Dawes General Allotment Act – replaced the reservation system with an allotment system. Each family was given 160-acre farmstead

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