Presentation on theme: "Chapter 18 Section 1 The Civil War The Civil War Begins The Civil War began with the Confederate attack on Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861. On April."— Presentation transcript:
The Civil War Begins The Civil War began with the Confederate attack on Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861. On April 15, President Lincoln called for 75,000 volunteers to end the rebellion. This had a powerful effect on the 8 slave states of the Upper South. These “Border States” had not yet decided whether to join the Confederacy or stay in the Union.
More States Join the Confederacy After Lincoln’s call for volunteers to put down the rebellion, Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina, and Tennessee seceded from the Union. Richmond, Virginia, became the capital of the Confederacy and Jefferson Davis was elected President of the Confederate States of America. (CSA)
Union States (North) (USA) UNION- Oregon, California, Kansas, Iowa, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, New York, Vermont, New Hampshire, Maine, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, West Virginia Border States - Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, Missouri Capital- Washington, D.C.
Confederate States (South) (CSA) Confederacy- South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas, Arkansas, Tennessee, North Carolina, Virginia Capital- Richmond, Virginia
Comparing Confederacy & Union Confederate FlagUnion Flag
Leaders of the Civil War Abraham Lincoln (Union) Jefferson Davis ( Confederacy)
Problems in Maryland Lincoln knew he had to keep Maryland in the Union; the state surrounded Washington, D.C. on three sides. In Maryland, pro-Confederate mobs attacked Union soldiers. To hold pro-Confederate leaders in Maryland prison, Lincoln suspended the right of habeas corpus. Habeas corpus- a right that protects people from being held in prison unlawfully
Problems in Missouri In Missouri, Union and Confederate supporters fought each other fiercely. Lincoln kept Missouri in the Union under martial law. Martial law- rule by the army instead of by the usual government officials
Advantages NorthSouth The north had more farmland-65% Had more factories-85% Had more railroad lines- 71% Had more production of manufactured goods-92% Total population-71% The South’s main advantage was its military leaders, such as Robert E. Lee.
North versus South Northerners volunteered to preserve the Union while Southerners prepared to defend their way of life. Northerners were called Billy Yanks or Yankees. Southerners were called Johnny Rebs, or rebels.
North versus South Union Soldier (Blue)Confederate Soldier (Gray)
Women, Children and African Americans in the War Many disguised women and young boys joined the armies. Historians estimate between 10-20% off all soldiers (250,000- 420,000) were 16 years old or younger. At first, African Americans were banned from the Union armies but later on they had their own regiments led by white officers.
Young Soldiers Johnny Clem 10 years oldYoung Confederate soldier
African Americans 54 th MassachusettsMonument at Gettysburg