Carbon can bond with many elements!!!! Including hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, sulfur, and nitrogen These all form the molecules of life!! They bind with so many elements because of valence electrons 4 Valence electrons Allows for strong covalent bonds Carbon can also bind to other Carbon atoms Allows for the formation of chains that are almost UNLIMITED in length Carbon-carbon bonds can be single, double, or triple covalent bonds They can even form rings NO OTHER ELEMENT COMES CLOSE TO MATCHING CARBON’S VERSATILITY !
Large organic compounds in living cells. “Giant Molecules” Made from thousands to even hundreds of thousands of smaller molecules Most are formed by POLYMERIZATION Large molecules are built by joining smaller ones together Monomers: smaller units Polymers: many monomers joined together They may be identical or different
o Made up of mainly carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms o Ratio 1:2:1 o MAIN SOURCE OF ENERGY o Also can be used for structural purposes o Breakdown of sugars, such as GLUCOSE, supplies immediate energy for cell activities. o Store extra sugar as complex carbs= STARCHES Glucose
SIMPLE SUGARS MONOSACCHARIDES- single sugar molecules GLUCOSE GALACTOSE (Component of milk) FRUCTOSE (found in many fruits) SUCROSE (table sugar consists of glucose and fructose) DISACCHARIDE
COMPLEX CARBOHYDRATES POLYSACCHARIDES- Large macromolecules formed from monosaccharide Animals store excess sugar= GLYCOGEN (Animal Starch) When the level of glucose in your blood runs low, glycogen is broken down into glucose, which is then released into the blood. Glycogen stored in your muscles allows for muscle contraction Plants store excess sugar= STARCH and CELLULOSE Cellulose- tough, flexible cellulose fibers give plants much of their strength and rigidity. wood and paper
found in the external skeleton of CRABS, LOBSTERS, and many insects
NOT soluble in water Made mostly from carbon and hydrogen atoms Fats, oils, waxes, and steroids STORE ENERGY IMPORTANT PARTS OF BIOLOGICAL MEMBRANES AND WATERPROOF COVERINGS Formed when a glycerol molecule combine with fatty acids
LIPIDS ARE FOUND IN TWO WAYS… SATURATED FATTY ACID CHAINS UNSATURATED FATTY ACID CHAINS EACH CARBON ATOM IS ATTACHED BY A SINGLE BOND MAXIMUM # HYDROGEN ATOMS SOLIDS AT ROOM TEMPERATURE BUTTER AT LEAST ONE CARBON-CARBON DOUBLE BOND MORE THAN ONE DOUBLE BOND=POLYUNSATURATED LIQUID AT ROOM TEMPERATURE COOKING OILS (CORN OIL, SESAME OIL, CANOLA OIL, PEANUT OIL