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+ Macromolecules Short Chemistry Review and Macromolecules.

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Presentation on theme: "+ Macromolecules Short Chemistry Review and Macromolecules."— Presentation transcript:

1 + Macromolecules Short Chemistry Review and Macromolecules

2 + Focus Question What are the functions of each group of organic compounds?

3 + Short Review

4 + Quick Review Atom: - Protons: positive charge - Neutrons: neutral charge - Electrons: negative charge 1

5 + Quiz Question 1. The three particles (parts) that make up an atom are: a. protons, neutrons, and isotopes b. neutrons, isotopes and electrons c. positives, negatives and electrons d. protons, neutrons and electrons

6 + Atoms, Elements, Molecules HH HH ATOMS Molecule - H 2 O O O O O O O O ATOMS Molecule – O 2 Elements

7 + Ionic Bonding Ionic Bonds: when atoms gain or lose electrons to form ions (charged particles).

8 + Covalent Bonding Covalent Bond: when two or more atoms share electrons to form a molecule. In a water molecule, each hydrogen atom forms a covalent bond with the oxygen atom. 3

9 + Hydrogen Bonding Hydrogen Bond: when a hydrogen atom of one molecule is attracted to an electronegative atom of another 4

10 + Quiz Question 2. What type of bond holds together the oxygen and hydrogen in a water molecule? a. Ionic bond b. Covalent bond c. Hydrogen bond d. Oxygen bond

11 + Quiz Question 3. What type of bond holds together 2 water molecules? a. Ionic bond b. Covalent bond c. Hydrogen bond d. Oxygen bond

12 + Water Polarity Polarity: charges are unevenly distributed is called a polar molecule. A water molecule is polar because there is an uneven distribution of electrons between the oxygen and hydrogen atoms. 9

13 + Cohesion: attraction of molecules of the same substance Adhesion: attraction of molecules from different substances 9

14 + pH scale Base: 8 -14 Neutral: 7 Acid: 0 - 6

15 + Macromolecules Carbon-based molecules are the foundation of life.

16 + Carbon atoms have unique bonding properties Most molecules that make up living things are based on carbon atoms. MONOMER: small molecule subunit POLYMER: molecule that contains many monomers

17 + Four Main Types of Carbon-based Molecules 1. Carbohydrates 2. Proteins 3. Lipids 4. Nucleic Acids

18 + Carbohydrates Structure: Made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen Function: main source of energy, make up plant cell wall Building Block: Monosaccharide Examples: Fructose and Glucose Larger Molecule: Polysaccharide Examples: Starch and Cellulose 5 & 8

19 + Proteins Structure: Made up of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and sometimes sulfur Function: enzymes, different body functions including movement, eyesight, digestion 6

20 + Protein Building Block: Amino Acids Examples: Glycine, Glutamine (20 different types) Larger Molecule: Polypeptide or Protein Examples: Hemoglobin (Red Blood Cell), meats, beans and nuts 7

21 + Lipids Structure: chain of carbon atoms bonded to hydrogen atoms Function: store large amounts of energy, membrane structure, insulation Building Block: Glycerol + fatty acids Larger Molecule: Fats, Oils, Waxes, Phospholipid, Steroids, Cholesterol Examples: Meat, Butter, Oil

22 + Nucleic Acids Structure: made up of a sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogen containing molecule (base) Function: contain instructions which are the code of proteins, contain the hereditary information Building Block: Nucleotides Larger Molecule: Nucleic Acid or Polynucleotide Examples: DNA and RNA

23 + Quiz Question 4. Which of the four macromolecules’ main function is to provide an energy source for living things? a. Lipids b. Carbohydrates c. Nucleic acids d. Proteins

24 + Quiz Question 5. What is the main function of nucleic acids? a. Provide energy for living things b. Store genetic information in DNA and RNA c. Speed up chemical reactions d. Store large amounts of energy

25 + Quiz Question 6. Amino Acids are the building block of a. Carbohydrates b. Lipids c. Proteins d. Nucleic Acids

26 + Quiz Question 7. Glucose, cellulose and starch are all a. Carbohydrates b. Lipids c. Proteins d. Nucleic Acids

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