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An Introduction to Poetry

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1 An Introduction to Poetry
Mrs. Todd’s Class

2 What is the difference between Prose and Poetry
Prose: Words that are organized into sentences and paragraphs. Literature that is not poetry Ex. Essays, Short Stories, Novels’, and Plays Poetry: Words that are organized into lines and stanzas. A form of literature that uses rhyme, rhythm, sound or structure to express something in an artistic way.

3 What is Poetry? At the most basic level, poetry is literature that expresses ideas, feelings, or tells a story in a specific form(usually using lines(verse) and stanzas). Most of the things that you hear, say, or read in your daily life (including the words you are reading right now) put more emphasis on meaning than on sound. Not so with poetry!

4 Poetry is an expression and it’s purpose is to communicate an idea, a sentiment, a concept. Often it takes the form of verse, but not all poetry has this structure. Poetry is a creative use of words which, like all art, is intended to stir an emotion in the audience.

5 Poetry Terms Lines make the music of the poem. They function as a skeleton, holding the poem up. Lines contain every aspect of sound, from how words sound alike and different to how they reflect emotion. The line always means rhythm and sometimes means rhyme. Even a free verse poem that doesn’t seem to have a regular rhythm or an obvious rhyme scheme still has the baseline bones of music. The line’s music gives us our instinctive understanding of a poem, even when we can’t articulate it. The basic unit of poetry is the line. It serves the same function as the sentence in prose. Most poems have a structure in which each line contains a set amount of rhyme an rhythm. Some poems do not have rhyme or rhythm but, they do have a certain structure.

6 Rhythm Rhyme Rhyme is the repetition of similar sounds. In poetry, the most common kind of rhyme is the end rhyme, which occurs at the end of two or more lines. It is usually identified with lower case letters, and a new letter is used to identify each new end sound. Take a look at the rhyme scheme for the following poem : I saw a fairy in the wood, He was dressed all in green. He drew his sword while I just stood, And realized I'd been seen. The rhyme scheme of the poem is abab. Rhythm is quite literally the heartbeat of a poem and serves as the backdrop from which the ideas and imagery can flow. Rhythm creates the pattern of language in a line of a poem, marked by the stressed and unstressed syllables in the words. Rhythm is essential to poetry because it is a mirror of life. Nature expects a rhythm, as evidenced by the change from day to night, or the order of the seasons. This contributes to the pleasure of the reader; rhythm is what we expect from music, from nature, and certainly from poetry

7 Meter Meter and Rhythm work together.
Rhythm is a natural thing. It's in everything you say and write, even if you don't intend for it to be. Traditional forms of verse use established rhythmic patterns called meters (meter means "measure" in Greek), and that's what meters are — premeasured patterns of stressed and unstressed syllables. Examples duh-duh-DUH, as in but of course! duh-Duh! as in success! Iambic meter is extremely common in English language poetry. Shakespeare used it in his sonnets and in his plays. Look at this line from "Romeo and Juliet":  But soft, what light through yonder window breaks  That line consists of five iambs:  but SOFT / what LIGHT / through YON / der WIN / dow BREAKS 

8 Stanza Do not go gentle into that good night.  Good men, the last wave by, crying how bright  Their frail deeds might have danced in a green bay,  Rage, rage against the dying of the light.  Wild men who caught and sang the sun in flight,  And learn, too late, they grieved it on its way,  Do not go gentle into that good night.  Grave men, near death, who see with blinding sight  Blind eyes could blaze like meteors and be gay,  Rage, rage against the dying of the light.  And you, my father, there on the sad height,  Curse, bless me now with your fierce tears, I pray.  Do not go gentle into that good night.  Rage, rage against the dying of the light.  S T A N Z The stanza in poetry is equivalent or equal to the paragraph in prose. Often the lines in a stanza will have a specific rhyme scheme. Example of Stanza: Do not go Gentle into that Good Night by Dylan Thomas Do not go gentle into that good night,  Old age should burn and rave at close of day;  Rage, rage against the dying of the light. Though wise men at their end know dark is right,  Because their words had forked no lightning they

9 Rhyme Scheme A B C D Dust of Snow by Robert Frost The way a crow
Shook down on me The dust of snow From a hemlock tree Has given my heart A change of mood And save some part Of a day I had rued. Rhyme Scheme A B C D Rhyme scheme is the pattern of rhyming words at the end of each line. Not all poetry has a rhyme scheme. They are not hard to identify, but you must look carefully at which words rhyme and which do not

10 Whenever you describe something by comparing it with something else, you are using figurative language. Figurative language is any language that goes beyond the literal meaning of words in order to furnish new effects or fresh insights into an idea or a subject. The most common figures of speech are simile, metaphor, imagery or sensory language and alliteration. Figurative language is used in poetry to compare two things that are usually not thought of as being alike.

11 A simile is a figure of speech in which two essentially unlike things are compared, often in a phrase introduced by like or as. The clouds looked like cotton candy. Grandpa was as stubborn as a mule Tom's head is as hard as a rock.

12 A metaphor is a figure of speech in which an implied comparison is made between two unlike things that actually have something important in common. Clouds are cotton candy They are fluffy. Grandpa was a mule. They are stubborn Tom is a rock. Rocks are hard

13 The use of repeating consonant sounds in a line
The use of repeating consonant sounds in a line. Modern alliteration is predominantly consonantal. Example: Silvery snowflakes fall silently Softly sheathing all with moonlight Until sunrise slowly shows Snow softening swiftly.

14 Imagery or Sensory Language
Imagery or Sensory Language is an appeal to the senses. The poet describes something to help you to see, hear, touch, taste, or smell the topic of the poem. Fog The fog comes on little cat feet SEE, HEAR It sits looking over harbor and city SEE, HEAR on silent haunches and then moves on. SEE, HEAR, FEEL Carl Sandburg

15 Assonance Assonance is the repetition of vowel sounds to create internal rhyming within phrases or sentences. Ex. We light fire on the mountain. I feel depressed and restless. Go and mow the lawn. Johnny went here and there and everywhere. The engineer held the steering to steer the vehicle.

16 (Influenced by the setting)
MOOD READER CENTERED This is the over all feeling or atmosphere created by a work of literature. (Influenced by the setting)

17 TONE The tone of a poem is the attitude you feel in it — the writer's attitude toward the subject or audience. The tone in a poem of praise is approval. In an antiwar poem, you may feel protest. Tone can be playful, humorous, regretful, anything — and it can change as the poem goes along. When you speak, your tone of voice suggests your attitude. In fact, it suggests two attitudes: one concerning the people you're addressing (your audience) and one concerning the thing you're talking about (your subject). That's what the term tone means when it's applied to poetry as well. Tone can also mean the general emotional weather of the poem. Sometimes tone is fairly obvious. You can, for example, find poems that are absolutely furious.


19 Onomatopoeia describes a word in which the sound of the word tells the meaning.  It makes the sound it represents.

20 Types of Poems We will be studying Free Verse, Rhyming, Epic, Narrative and Lyrical Poems in the next few weeks. We will be able to identify the poems, their purpose and identify the structure and elements of the poems.

21 Free verse is just what it says it is - poetry that is written without proper rules about form, rhyme, rhythm, and meter. In free verse the writer makes his/her own rules. The writer decides how the poem should look, feel, and sound. It is more thoughtful and deep.

22 Rhyming Poetry Definition of Rhymes
Rhymes are types of poems which have the repetition of the same or similar sounds at the end of two or more words most often at the ends of lines. This technique makes the poem easy to remember and is therefore often used in Nursery Rhymes. They have a Rhyme scheme.

23 Lyric Poetry Definition of Lyric Poetry
Lyric Poetry consists of a poem, such as a sonnet or an ode, that expresses the thoughts and feelings of the poet. The term lyric is now commonly referred to as the words to a song. Lyric poetry does not tell a story which portrays characters and actions. The lyric poet addresses the reader directly, portraying his or her own feeling, state of mind, and perceptions.

24 Dying by Emily Dickinson
I heard a fly buzz when I died; The stillness round my form Was like the stillness in the air Between the heaves of storm. The eyes beside had wrung them dry, And breaths were gathering sure For that last onset, when the king Be witnessed in his power. I willed my keepsakes, signed away What portion of me I Could make assignable,-and then There interposed a fly, With blue, uncertain, stumbling buzz, Between the light and me; And then the windows failed, and then I could not see to see. Example of Lyric Poems

25 Example Lyric Poem You held me down, but I got up (hey!) Already brushing off the dust You hear my voice, your hear that sound Like thunder, gonna shake the ground You held me down, but I got up Get ready 'cause I had enough I see it all, I see it now I got the eye of the tiger, the fire Dancing through the fire 'Cause I am a champion, and you're gonna hear me roar Louder, louder than a lion 'Cause I am a champion, and you're gonna hear me roar! Read more: Katy Perry - Roar Lyrics | MetroLyrics 

26 EPIC POETRY An epic in its most specific sense is a genre of classical poetry originating in Greece. Traditionally, an epic poem is a long, serious, poetic narrative about a significant event, often featuring a hero. Before the development of writing, epic poems were memorized and played an important part in maintaining a record of the great deeds and history of a culture. Later, they were written down and the tradition for this kind of poem continued. Epics often feature the following: a hero who embodies the values of a culture or ethnic group; something vital that depends on the success of the hero's actions; a broad setting, sometimes encompassing the entire world; intervention by supernatural beings. Examples of epics include Gilgamesh, the Odyssey, and Beowulf.

27 Narrative Poetry Narrative poetry is poetry that tells a story. In its broadest sense, it includes epic poetry; some would reserve the name narrative poetry for works on a smaller scale and generally with more direct appeal to human interest than the epic. Ex. The Raven

28 OTHER POEMS Haiku is one of the most important forms of traditional Japanese poetry. Haiku is, today, a 17-syllable verse form consisting of three metered lines of 5, 7, and 5 syllables. Each Haiku must contain a kigo, a season word, which indicate in which season the Haiku is set The simplicity of the limerick quite possibly accounts for its extreme longevity. It consists of five lines with the rhyme scheme a a b b a. Concrete poems are poems that don’t have to rhyme but, are written in the shape of what they are describing.

29 Examples A B Haiku (theme is weather)
Hail They fell in showers. Like diamonds upon the ground Big hailstones were found. Limerick Old Man with a Beard Edward Lear There was an Old Man with a beard, Who said, 'It is just as I feared! Two Owls and a Hen, Four Larks and a Wren, Have all built their nests in my beard!' A B

30 Concrete Poems WHAT IS A CONCRETE POEM?
Concrete poetry—sometimes also called ‘shape poetry’—is poetry whose visual appearance matches the topic of the poem. The words form shapes which illustrate the poem’s subject as a picture. Concrete poems do not have to rhyme. Just think of a topic and then think about what you love about it and you are on your way.

31 Some might consider the study of poetry old fashioned, yet even in our hurried lives we are surrounded by it: children's rhymes, verses from songs, trite commercial jingles, well written texts. Any time we recognize words as interesting for sound, meaning or construct, we note poetics.

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