Presentation on theme: "Native Americans and Western Settlement Focus Question: How did the pressures of westward expansion impact Native Americans?"— Presentation transcript:
Native Americans and Western Settlement Focus Question: How did the pressures of westward expansion impact Native Americans?
Decline of Native American Culture By the end of the Civil War, around 250,000 Native Americans lived west of the Mississippi River What do we already know about how Native Americans are treated by the U.S. Government?
The Great Plains The large grassland extending through the west central portion of the United States
The Buffalo Clothing, food, shelter, shoes, and blankets
Buffalo Population 180065,000,000 185015,000,000 18701,000 2000260,000 The loss of the Buffalo due to massive over-hunting by American Settlers led to the demise of many Plains tribes
Main Difference between American Settlers and Native Americans: LAND!!! Native Americans did not believe in private ownership of land American Settlers believed that Natives gave up their rights to the land because they didn’t “improve” it (farm, build, etc)
When gold was discovered out West – millions move west – come in contact with Native Americans
Sand Creek Massacre 1864 US Militia attacked Native Americans at Sand Creek 150+ Native Americans were killed (mainly women and children) Lt. Colonel John Chivington
Chivington became violently angry at them and brought his fist down close to LT Cramer’s face. “Damn any man who sympathizes with Indians!” he cried. “I have come to kill Indians, and believe it is right and honorable to use any means under God’s heaven to kill Indians.” ~ from Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee
Words of a Sioux [We] have been taught to hunt and live on the game [buffalo]. You tell us that we must learn to farm, live in one house, and take on your ways. Suppose the people living beyond the great sea should come and tell you that you must stop farming, and kill your cattle, and take your houses and lands, what would you do? Would you not fight them?
Reservation or Resistance Friendly tribes were forced onto reservations Resisting tribes were met with violent force Reservations: Specific areas set aside by the government for Indians to live. Problems for Native Americans: Loss of freedom Little $ (Poverty) Disease from white men Problems for Native Americans: Loss of freedom Little $ (Poverty) Disease from white men
NOTES BREAK!!! OPEN YOUR TEXTBOOK TO PAGE. 411 AND ANALYZE THE MAP. BE READY TO ANSWER THE TWO QUESTIONS AT THE BOTTOM.
Sitting Bull: Sioux Chief General Custer: US Army
Battle of Little Bighorn June 25, 1876 Underestimating Sioux strength, Custer attacked the Sioux encampment on the banks of the Little Bighorn River Led by Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull, the Sioux force totaled over 1,200 warriors In less than one hour, all the 220+ members of Custer’s military were dead
Sitting Bull After the victory at Little Bighorn, the weakened Sioux began to suffer losses in 1876 He took his people to Canada to avoid destruction by the US Army Because of starvation, Sitting Bull led his people back to surrender in the US in 1881
Assimilation Defined: A plan for Native Americans to give up their beliefs and way of life and become part of white culture Dawes Act (1887) ~ Broke up large reservations and gave the land to individual Native Americans to farm (160 acres to every family)
Critics of Assimilation Helen Hunt Jackson wrote A Century of Dishonor- said the government should treat the Native Americans fairly and make up for past wrongs.
Wounded Knee Massacre In 1890, the army collected 350+ starving Sioux into a camp at Wounded Knee Creek, South Dakota The US demanded the Sioux give up all their weapons A shot was fired in the camp somewhere and the US Soldiers opened fire killing everyone to include women and children
Chief Big Foot dead in the snow at Wounded Knee Wounded Knee ended Native American resistance
Why do you think forced assimilation doesn’t work?
RAFT or History Frame You will need to investigate further to do the assignment correctly. More information can be found on pgs. 409-413 This will be due at the end of class today!