Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2: The Economizing Problem"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 2: The Economizing Problem Money and time are both scarce; making decision in the context of scarcity always means there are costsThe Fundamentals of Economics: Scarcity, Choices, & CostsThe Economizing Problem focuses on Wants & ResourcesProduction Possibilities ModelCircular Flow Model
2 The Fundamentals of Economics Two facts constitute the Economizing Problem:Society’s economic wants are unlimited & insatiableEconomic resources are limited or scarce
3 Economic WantsDesires of consumers to obtain & use various goods & services that provide UTILITYNecessities LuxuriesOver time, wants change & multiply, fueled by new productsBusiness & government also try to satisfy their economic goalsThe objective of all economic activity is to fulfill wants
4 Scarce Resources Economic resources are limited or scarce. Resources: all natural, human, & manufactured resources in the production of goods & services.Property (Land, Raw Mats, & Capital)Human (Labor & Entrepreneurial)
5 The Factors of Production LandIncludes all natural resources used in production process (arable land, forests, mineral & oil deposits, & water resources)Capital (aka Capital/Investment Goods)Includes all manufactured aids used in producing consumer goods & services.Investment is the process of producing & purchasing capital goodsLaborAll physical & mental talents of individuals available & usable in producing goods & servicesEntrepreneurial Ability
6 Full Employment Full Employment: Use of all available resources. No workers should be out of work if they are willing & ableLand or equipment is not idle
7 Full ProductionAll employed resources should be used to provide maximum possible satisfaction of our wants.Otherwise, underemployedProductive Efficiency: Production of any particular mix of goods & services in the least costly wayAllocative Efficiency: Production of a particular mix of goods & services most wanted by society.“Right” mix of goods & services, each produced at lowest possible unit cost.
8 Production Possibilities Model Assumptions:Full Employment & Productive EfficiencyFactors of Production are Fixed in Quantity & QualityCan be reallocated, within limits, among different usesFixed Technology (Short Period of Time)Economy is Producing ONLY Two (2) GoodsAt any point in time, an economy achieving full employment & productive efficiency must sacrifice some of one good to obtain more of another good. Scarce resources prohibit such an economy from having more of both goods.
9 Production Possibilities Curve Each point on the PPC represents some maximum output of the two products.Production Possibilities Frontier shows the limit of attainable outputs.To obtain the various combinations of goods that fall ON the PPC, society MUST achieve both Full Employment & Productive Efficiency.Points inside are inefficient, undesirablePoints outside are unattainable w/ current supply of resources & technology
10 Increasing Opportunity Cost Since resources are scarce relative to virtually unlimited wants, people must choose between alternatives.Opportunity Cost: The amount of other products that must be forgone or satisfied to obtain 1 unit of a specific good.The opportunity cost of each additional unit of a good is greater than the opportunity cost of the preceding one.Opportunity cost is measured in real terms (goods v. money)The more of a product that is produced, the greater its opportunity costEconomic resources are not completely adaptable to alternative uses. Lack of perfect flexibility on the part of resources is cause of increasing OC.
11 Allocative Efficiency Allocative Efficiency requires economy produce at most valued or optimal point on the PPC.Economic decisions center on weighing marginal benefits v. marginal costs.Any economic activity should be expanded as long as MB > MCAn economic activity should be reduced if MC > MBThe optimal amount of activity occurs when MB = MC
12 Allocative Efficiency (cont’d) The optimal quantity of production is indicated by the intersection of the MB & MC curves.When MB = MC, the benefits of producing a good or an alternative product w/ the available resources are equalAllocative efficiency is achieved when MB = MCResources are being efficiently allocated to any product when MB = MC.
13 Unemployment & Productive Inefficiency In the presence of unemployment or inefficiency, the economy would produce lessRepresented by points inside the original PPCA move toward full employment & productive efficiency would yield a greater output of one or both products.
14 A Growing Economy: Increase in Resource Supplies E.g.: Size of Labor Increases (Growing Population, Immigration)Quality of Labor improves over timeGreater abundance of resources results in greater potential output of one or both products at each alternative on the PPC.Economic growth is achieved in the form of an expanded potential output.
15 A Growing Economy: Advances in Technology Technology progresses over timeAdvanced technology brings new & better goods AND improved ways of producing themTechnological advances allows society to produce more goods with fixed resources.
16 A Growing EconomyWhen the supplies of resources increase or there is improvement in technology, the Production Possibilities Curve SHIFTS OUTAn outward shift of the PPC represents growth of economic capacityEconomic Growth: The ability to produce larger total output.While static, no-growth economy must sacrifice some of one product in order to get more of another, a dynamic, growing economy can have larger quantities of both products
17 Present Choices & Future Possibilities An economy’s current choice of positions on its PPC helps determine the curve’s future location
18 International TradeProduction Possibilities Model implies that an individual nation is limited to the combinations of output indicated by its PPC.Through specialization & trade, the output limits imposed by its domestic PPC can be avoided.International Specialization: Directing domestic resources to make what a nation is highly efficient at producing.International Trade: the exchange of specialized goods for goods produced abroad.International specialization & trade enable a nation to obtain more goods than its PPC indicates.
19 Economic SystemsEvery society develops an economic system, a particular set of institutional arrangements and a coordinating mechanism, to respond to the economizing problem.Economic systems differ depending on:Who owns the factors of productionThe method used to coordinate & direct economic activity
20 The Market System (Capitalism) Characterized by the private ownership of resources and the use of markets & prices to coordinate and direct economic activityEach participant acts in their own self-interestEach individual/business seeks to maximize satisfaction/profitPrivate ownership of capitalCommunicates through PricesCoordinates activity through Markets: where buyers & sellers come togetherCompetition among independent buyers & sellers of each product
21 The Command System (Socialism/Communism) Government owns most property resourcesGovernment makes economic decisionsUse of resources, composition & distribution of output, organization of productionDivision of output between capital & consumer goods is centrally decided
22 The Circular Flow Model Decision Makers:Households (people) own all economic resources directly or indirectlyBusinesses buy resources necessary for producing goods & services; Wages, rent, interest & profit income (money) flows back to households
23 The Circular Flow Model Markets:Resource: where resources or services are bought & soldProduct: where goods & services produced by businesses are bought & sold.Businesses combine resources to make products they sellHouseholds use income to buy goods & servicesMonetary flow of consumer spending yields revenues for businesses
24 The Circular Flow Model (p. 35) Complex, interrelated web of decision making & economic activity involving businesses & householdsDecision makers are buyers & sellersCounterclockwise real flow of economic resources & finished goods & servicesClockwise money flow of income & consumption expendituresFlows are simultaneous & repetitive
25 Chapter 2 Study Questions 5: Productive Efficiency & Allocative Efficiency6: Production Possibilities Curve9: Marginal Benefit & Cost10: Production Possibilities Curve12: PPC16: Circular Flow Model17: Women & Expanded Production Possibilities