Electromagnetic Waves Light is made of electromagnetic waves. Take a prism and break up white light into a rainbow like band of colors. These are all in the visible spectrum. Red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet. ROY G BIV
Electromagnetic Waves The spectrum also includes non-visible electromagnetic waves, such as x-rays, microwaves, radio waves, and radiation. Because they all are electromagnetic waves they all have similar properties.
Electromagnetic Waves Electromagnetic waves are transverse waves consisting of oscillating electric and magnetic fields at right angles to each other. Oscillate: to have a periodic vibration
Electromagnetic Waves Electromagnetic waves vary depending on frequency and wavelength All electromagnetic waves move at the speed of light
Electromagnetic Waves We will use 3.00 X 10 8 m/s as the speed of light, c. The wave speed equation is: c = f Speed of light = frequency X wavelength
Sample Problem The AM radio band extends from 5.4 X 10 5 Hz to 1.7 X 10 6 Hz. What are the longest and shortest wavelengths in this frequency range? f 1 = 5.4 x 10 5 Hz f 2 = 1.7 x 10 6 Hz c = 3.0 x 10 8 m/s c = f = c/ f 1 = 5.6 x 10 2 m 2 = 1.8 x 10 2 m
Light travels in straight lines. Show the laser on the wall. Put an index card in the beam. This shows that the light is traveling in a straight line, but you can only see it when it hits something. Put some chalk dust in the beam to show it is continuous. Brightness decreases by the square of the distance form the source Show how the size of the dot the laser makes gets bigger as it gets further from the source. Laser
The brightness of light is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the light source. Ex. If you move twice as far away from the light source, ¼ as much light falls on the book.
Reflection of Light Reflection – the turning back of an electromagnetic wave at the surface of a substance
Clear vs. Diffuse Reflection Specular reflection: light reflected from smooth shiny surfaces In specular reflection the incoming and reflected angles are equal ( = ’) Diffuse reflection: light is reflected from a rough textured surface
Part 2 - Reflection Reflection from a mirror: Incident ray Normal Reflected ray Angle of incidence Angle of reflection Mirror
Reflection of Light Angle of incidence – the angle between a ray that strikes a surface and the normal to that surface at the point of contact. Angle of reflection – the angle formed by the line normal to a surface and the direction in which a reflected ray moves Normal is a line perpendicular to the reflection surface.
The Law of Reflection Angle of incidence = Angle of reflection In other words, light gets reflected from a surface at THE SAME ANGLE it hits it. The same !!!
Drawing a Reflected Image Use ray diagrams to show image location We will find the virtual image (the image formed by light rays that only appear to intersect)
Drawing a Reflected Image Draw the object in front of the mirror Draw a ray perpendicular to the mirror’s surface. Because this is 0 from normal, the angle is the same from the mirror to the virtual object Draw a second ray that is not perpendicular to the mirror’s surface from the same point to the surface of the mirror. Next, trace both reflected rays back to the point from which they appear to have originated, that is, behind the mirror. Use dotted lines when drawing lines that that appear to emerge from behind the mirror. The point at which the dotted lines meet is the image point.
Flat Mirrors Image is VIRTUAL, UPRIGHT, UNMAGNIFIED
Concave Spherical Mirrors A spherical mirror has the shape of part of a sphere’s surface. The images formed are different than those of flat mirrors. Concave Spherical Mirror – an inwardly curved, mirrored surface that is a portion of a sphere and that converges incoming light rays.
Concave Spherical Mirrors The light bulb is distance p away from the center of the curvature, C. Light rays leave the light bulb, reflect from the mirror and converge at distance q in front of the mirror. Because the reflected light rays pass through the image point, the image forms in front of the mirror.
Concave Spherical Mirror When an object changes its location in relation to the mirror, its image changes in location, and form.
Spherical Mirrors - Convex Convex spherical mirror: An outwardly curved, mirrored surface that is a portion of a sphere and that diverges incoming light rays The focal point and center of curvature are situated behind the mirror.
Spherical Mirrors - Convex Convex mirrors take the objects in a large field of view and produce a small image, but give a the observer a complete view of a large area. Examples: In stores, the passenger’s side of a car
Color White light is not a single color; it is made up of a mixture of the seven colors of the rainbow. We can demonstrate this by splitting white light with a prism: This is how rainbows are formed: sunlight is “split up” by raindrops.
Wavelengths of Light Red Light – nm Green Light - nm Blue Light - nm
Adding colours White light can be split up to make separate colors. These colors can be added together again. The primary colors of light are red, blue and green: Adding blue and red makes magenta (purple) Adding blue and green makes cyan (light blue) Adding all three makes white again Adding red and green makes yellow
Seeing color The color an object appears depends on the colors of light it reflects. For example, a red book only reflects red light: White light Only red light is reflected
A white hat would reflect all seven colors: A pair of purple pants, in addition to being ugly, would reflect purple light (or red and blue, as purple is made up of red and blue): Purple light White light
Using colored light If we look at a colored object in colored light we see something different. For example, consider the outfit below – I mean, from a physics standpoint, not as a fashion choice: White light Shorts look blue Shirt looks red
In different colours of light this kit would look different: Red light Shirt looks red Shorts look black Blue light Shirt looks black Shorts look blue
Using filters Filters can be used to “block” out different colours of light: Red Filter Magenta Filter