Presentation on theme: "DESCRIBING MATTER. Anything that has mass and takes up space Substance - single kind of matter that has a specific make-up and specific properties Example:"— Presentation transcript:
Anything that has mass and takes up space Substance - single kind of matter that has a specific make-up and specific properties Example: Salt or sugar Non-Example: Muffin batter (the ingredients can vary) MATTER
Can be observed without changing into another substance Examples: Freezing point, melting point, density, texture, color, flexibility, solubility in water PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MATTER
Ability to change into a different substance Examples: flammability, rusting, tarnishing, rising of bread in baking process CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF MATTER
Pure substances that cannot be broken down into any other substance Simplest substances - identified by its specific physical and chemical properties Examples: Carbon, Oxygen, Gold, Silver, Aluminum ELEMENTS
Basic particle that makes up all elements Having different atoms gives elements their unique properties Atoms have parts! The nucleus is made up of positively charged protons and neutrally charged neutrons. The nucleus is surrounded by a cloud of negatively charged electrons. ATOMS
Pencil “lead” is made of mostly graphite, a form of carbon. Two ways to model atoms used in this presentation are shown here for carbon. MODELING AN ATOM
Atoms combine by chemical bonds (a force of attraction between the electrons of 2 or more atoms). Often form molecules- groups of 2 or more atoms held together by chemical bonds Examples: H 2 O, O 2, CO 2 CHEMICAL BONDS
MODELING MOLECULES How many atoms are in each of these molecules?
Pure substance made up of 2 or more elements chemically combined in a set ratio Represented by a chemical formula which shows the elements in the compound and the ratio of atoms When elements combine to form compounds, they have unique properties from those of the uncombined elements -Example: Hydrogen alone is a very combustible gas, Oxygen alone is a major supporter of combustibility, but when combined in the set 2:1 ratio H 2 O, they put out fires! COMPOUNDS
A ratio compares two numbers. It tells you how much you have of one item compared to how much you have of another. For example, a cookie recipe calls for 2 cups of flour to every 1 cup of sugar. You can write the ratio of flour to sugar as 2 to 1, or 2:1. The chemical formula for rust, a compound made from the elements iron (Fe) and oxygen (O), may be written as Fe 2 O 3. In this compound, the ratio of iron atoms to oxygen atoms is 2:3. This compound is different from FeO, a compound in which the ratio of iron atoms to oxygen atoms is 1:1. RATIOS
Practice Problem What is the ratio of nitrogen atoms (N) to oxygen atoms (O) in a compound with the formula N 2 O 5 ? Is it the same as the compound NO 2 ? Explain. N 2 O 5 contains two nitrogen atoms for every five oxygen atoms. Both N 2 O 5 and NO 2 are made up of only nitrogen atoms and oxygen atoms. However, the two compounds are different because NO 2 contains one nitrogen atom for every two oxygen atoms. RATIOS
Made up of 2 or more substances that are not chemically combined Differ from compounds because they do not have to have a set ratio, and each substance in mixture keeps its individual properties Examples: Air, Soil, Salt water MIXTURES
Hetero = different Can see different parts of mixture Examples: Soil, Salad HETEROGENEOUS MIXTURES Who can think of other examples?
Homo = same Can’t see different parts of mixture, evenly mixed Examples: Sugar/water solution, Air HOMOGENEOUS MIXTURES Who can think of other examples?
Compounds are hard to separate Mixtures are easy to separate since each component keeps its own properties Look at figure 10 on page 66, it shows different ways to separate a mixture including using a magnet, filtering, distilling, and evaporating SEPARATING MIXTURES
LET’S REVIEW!! What are some examples of chemical properties of matter? Rusting, flammability, bread baking What are some examples of physical properties of matter? Density, melting, freezing, color, flexibility, hardness
LET’S REVIEW!! What 2 things does a chemical formula show? The elements present and the ratio of atoms Give an example of an element. Carbon, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Gold, Silver, etc.