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Biomechanical movement principles Pages 62 - 135

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Labs Classwork Homework Participation/Attendance (80%)

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Case study analysis or data analysis ◦ Week 4 - 5 (term 2)

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Biomechanics is the study of living things from a mechanical perspective and is essentially the physics behind human movement. The application of the laws and principles of mechanics to living organisms. (Mechanics of Sport 1997) The science of human movement. It applies the laws of mechanics and physics to human performance. (Live It Up 2006)

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A scientist who is involved in: ◦ Human performance analysis ◦ The analysis of forces in sport and physical activities ◦ How injuries occur in sport ◦ Injury prevention and rehabilitative treatment methods ◦ The design and development of sporting equipment.

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Cinematography Computer and digital analysis Wind tunnels Resistance pools/swimming flumes Electromyography

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Motion Force production Application of force Newton’s three laws of motion Momentum Leverage Impact and friction Balance and stability **Equipment design**

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KEY KNOWLEDGEKEY SKILLS Newton’s laws of motions incorporating force, mass and weight, acceleration and inertia applied to a range of sporting and physical activities. The application of force summation to different sports and physical activities How is momentum conserved and transferred during different sports Factors affecting angular motion including torque, angular velocity, momentum and moment of inertia and their application to sporting activities The coefficient of restitution and elasticity of different sports equipment. How does rebound velocity effect performances? Explain the application of key biomechanical principles to a range of sporting movements by using correct terms Investigate and interpret graphs of biomechanical principles pertaining to movements Participate in, analyse and report on a range of practical activities that consider biomechanical principles Use biomechanical principles to critique the effectiveness of different movements Analyse different sporting actions to identify similarities and differences as well as the correct application of biomechanical principles to improve performance

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The body’s resistance to change its state of motion. ◦ Resistance to beginning movement ◦ Resistance to changing its movement whilst moving. The heavier an object, the greater its inertia. Eg.

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They’re different! Mass is the amount of matter an object is made up of. Mass is usually measured in kilograms. Weight is the force exerted on an object by gravity and is directly proportional to its mass. Mass & Weight

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“A push or a pull acting on an object.” ◦ (from this year’s text) “Any pushing or pulling activity that tends to alter the state of motion of a body.” Forces on the body can be internal or external. Examples of forces...

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Gravity ◦ The pull towards the centre of the earth. Friction ◦ The rubbing of the surface of one thing against that of another. Air resistance ◦ The resistance against a body created by air. Water resistance ◦ The resistance against a body created by water.

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Friction is the force that occurs whenever one body moves across another surface. Friction always opposes motion.

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Occurs when two objects slide over one another. Eg. When an object rolls across a surface. Eg.

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There are two types of internal forces: Isometric force (without motion) ◦ Muscular contractions create force without changing length or creating movement. ◦ Eg. Isotonic force (with motion) ◦ Force is sufficient enough to change the state of motion. ◦ Eg.

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Sub-maximal force ◦ Using a less than maximal force to create a successful, more accurate performance. ◦ Eg. Maximal force (force summation) ◦ Can be achieved: 1.Simultaneously, where an explosive action of all body parts occurs at the same time. ◦ Eg. 2.Sequentially, where body parts move in sequence. ◦ Eg.

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Lab #5 due Friday, 3 rd May

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Pages 101-102 Newton’s first law of motion ◦ inertia Newton’s second law of motion ◦ Acceleration/momentum Newton’s third law of motion ◦ Action/reaction

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‘A body will remain at rest or continue in a constant state of motion unless acted upon by an external force.” Examples...

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‘A force applied to an object will produce a change in motion (acceleration) in the direction of the applied force that is directly proportional to the size of the force.’ Examples...

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‘For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.’ The total momentum of two objects before impact or contact will equal the total momentum after impact.

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“The motion possessed by a moving body.” Momentum = mass X velocity The greater an object’s momentum, the further it will travel and harder it is to stop. Which has greater momentum: ◦ A marathon runner weighs 60kg and is jogging at 10kmh. ◦ A footballer weighs 90kg and is walking at 6kmh. (Momentum is measured in kg m/s)

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An object that is not moving has zero momentum because it has no velocity If two objects have the same mass but different velocities, the one moving quickest has the greater momentum If two objects have the same velocity but different masses, the one with the greatest mass also has the greater momentum

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Total momentum before a collision equals total momentum after the collision (but can be affected by external forces) e.g. A hockey stick is used to hit a stationary ball (zero momentum before being hit) Before hitting the ball the stick has all of the momentum which is then transferred to the ball at point of impact (the stick still has momentum during the follow through) Conservation of Momentum

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Page 106 Questions 1, 2, 3, 4 & 5

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The momentum of a rotating object or body. AM = moment of inertia X angular velocity Is a body’s resistance to beginning rotation. The greater the distance from the axis to the end of the body (ie. to head of tennis racquet), the greater the moment of inertia. Moment of Inertia = mass x radius 2 Eg.

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Angular momentum is conserved when a body is in flight and there is an inverse relationship between angular velocity and moment of inertia Conservation of Angular Momentum

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What can coaches/parents do to reduce the moment of inertia of children’s sporting equipment?

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Impulse = force X time ◦ Where force equals velocity or speed, and time is the length of time over which the force was applied. Impulse is the reason objects’ momentums change. To change an object’s momentum, a force must be applied to the object over a period of time.

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The amount of rebound potential of a ball. When a ball hits a surface it changes shape for a short time before rebounding and returning to its previous shape. Factors affecting CoR: ◦ Contacting surfaces ◦ Temperature ◦ Impact velocity

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CoR is calculated by using the following formula: ◦ CoR = height of rebound height of release Object Height of release Height of rebound CoR Golf ball 2m1.6m0.894 Tennis Ball 1m0.6m0.775 Coefficient of Restitution

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BallHeight of releaseHeight of reboundCoefficient of restitution Tennis ball1m Hockey ball1m Nerf ball1m Basketball1m Table tennis ball1m Soft-cross ball1m

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BallHeight of releaseHeight of reboundCoefficient of restitution Tennis ball1m Golf ball1m Soccer ball1m Basketball1m Squash ball1m Soft-cross ball1m Nerf ball1m Table tennis ball1m Soft ball1m

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