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Lecture 2: Circuit Elements & Schematics Nilsson 2.1-2.5 ENG17 (Sec. 2): Circuits I Spring 2014 1 April 3, 2014

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Overview Voltage & Current Sources Electrical Resistance Circuit Model Kirchhoff’s Laws Dependent Sources 2

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5 Ideal Basic Circuit Elements Voltage Sources Current Sources Resistors Inductors Capacitors 3

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Ideal Sources 4 Voltage Source (const. voltage) Current Source (const. current)

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Dependent Sources 5 Voltage Sources Current Sources

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Schematics 6

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Schematics (w/dependents) 7

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Schematics - GND Ground (GND) is a common connection Typically connect to Earth GND Always a zero [V] reference potential 8

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Overview Voltage & Current Sources Electrical Resistance Circuit Model Kirchhoff’s Laws Dependent Sources 9

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Ohm’s Law 10

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Conductance 11

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Power & Ohm’s Law 12 Therefore… Ohm’s Law Power Relationship

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Examples 13

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Overview Voltage & Current Sources Electrical Resistance Circuit Model Kirchhoff’s Laws Dependent Sources 14

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Designing a Circuit Model 15

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Additional Elements 16 Short Circuit Open Circuit Switch

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Schematic 17 1.5V9V

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Overview Voltage & Current Sources Electrical Resistance Circuit Model Kirchhoff’s Laws Dependent Sources 18

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The Setup 19

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Kirchhoff’s Current Law (KCL) 20 The algebraic sum of all the currents at any node in a circuit equals zero. Therefore: Assign signs to currents at each node Positive (+) for current leaving a node Negative (-) for current entering a node Or vice versa

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Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law (KVL) 21 The algebraic sum of all the voltages around any closed path in a circuit equals zero. Therefore: Assign signs to voltages in a loop Positive (+) for voltage rise Negative (-) for voltage drop Or vice versa

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Observations 7 equations 4 equations –Because I and V are related through R, we only need one With only 2 branches at a node (in series), we only need to know 1 current 22

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KCL Example 23

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KVL Example 24

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Overview Voltage & Current Sources Electrical Resistance Circuit Model Kirchhoff’s Laws Dependent Sources 25

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Finding v o 26

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Finding v o 27 KVL: KCL: Ohm’s Law:

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Recap Voltage & Current Sources Electrical Resistance Circuit Model Kirchhoff’s Laws Dependent Sources 28

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