Presentation on theme: "Anastasia Bergamo Liceo Scientifico “A. Einstein” 3^ A anno scolastico 2010-2011 CULTURE AND LITERATURE IN ENGLAND IN THE MIDDLE AGES."— Presentation transcript:
Anastasia Bergamo Liceo Scientifico “A. Einstein” 3^ A anno scolastico 2010-2011 CULTURE AND LITERATURE IN ENGLAND IN THE MIDDLE AGES
LANGUAGES IN THE MIDDLE AGES Latin was spoken among the clergy and influenced Old English. After 1066 French was spoken among the nobility and at court. English was spoken among ordinary people. In the 14 th century English became the predominant language.
CULTURE Anglo-Saxon culture (4 th century- 1485) oral tradition: Beowulf Introduction of Christianity: monasteries became centres of culture and education The reign of king Alfred the Great (871-899): Latin texts were translated into Old English The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (1st example of English prose)
BOOKS AND PRESS Monasteries were cultural centres The clergy was the only literate class Monks copied manuscripts by hand on leather pages In 1475 William Caxton set up a press in London.
MEDIEVAL ART 1. The Anglo-Saxons had great artistic skills: they decorated weapons, jewellery and objects 2. Christian art: manuscripts and books of prayers were decorated 3. Anglo-Norman period: scenes of everyday life
RELIGIOUS ARCHITECTURE 1. Abbeys and minsters were built in Norman style: the cathedrals of Canterbury and Durham. 2. Later on the Gothic style was imported : Westminster Abbey (1245) Canterbury Durham
MEDIEVAL MUSIC The earliest music was compound by the poets who celebrated the adventures of heroes: a single melodic line and voices With the statement of Christianity ritual music disappeared During the reign of Edward IV English music developped John Dunstable, the first composer, introduced melodies and harmonies which anticipated the Renaissance.
BEOWULF - Genre: epic poem (3200 lines) - Author: anonymous - Origin: 7 th century - Language: Old English - Influence of Scandinavian sagas legends inspired by ancient historical events - Setting: Denmark, Gaetland and Sweden One manuscript (around the year 1000)
CULTURAL BACKGROUND The poem belongs to the tradition of Anglo-Saxon oral poetry. It was characterized by alliteration and repetition of fixed phrases that help memorisation. The verse form was a double line with a break in the middle to create rhythm. The metre was based on a pattern of stressed and alliterated words. The number of sillables in a line was not important. In Anglo-Saxon times poems were composed orally by “scops” who recited them by heart and to the accompaniment of harp or lyre.
PLOT The poem tells the story of the noble warrior Beowulf, a Scandinavian hero Part one - Beowulf goes to Denmark to help the Denish King. - He fights and kills the monster Grendel. - He fights and kills Grendel’s his mother. - He goes back home to Geatland. Beowulf and Grendel
Part two - Beowulf becomes king. His reign his peaceful and long. - He fights and kills a dragon to protect his kingdom. - After the fight he dies from his home wounds. THE PROTAGONIST : is a hero, a warrior he is strong, brave, proud, loyal.