Based on Guns Germs & Steel – Episode 3, what are some major: Motivations for Imperialism by the Europeans? Advantages the Europeans brought to Africa? Why did it happen in the 1800s?
G OLD Control over African and Asian countries would provide Europe with: ▪ natural resources (coal, diamonds, lumber, etc.) ▪ cheap labor ▪ a market to sell their products
G LORY There was intense competition for land and power among European countries. Nationalism: Global empires increased the ‘prestige’ of a nation Explorers wanted fame Countries wanted to dominate over others (superiority)
G OD People wanted to spread Christianity around the world IDEALOGY: In general, Europeans wanted to spread their way of life, believing that they were superior to those that they colonized. ▪ “helping their ‘little brothers’ beyond the sea”
A sense of racial superiority. Application of theory of natural selection and survival of the fittest to human societies. European argument: European races were superior to all others Imperial domination of the weaker races was ‘simply nature’s way of improving the human species’. What it actually is: Racism Result: Millions of people around the world were robbed of their cultural heritage.
The aftermath of the Industrial Revolution Great Britain was the first to industrialize Because it is an island, they needed to go somewhere else to find more materials, workers, and customers.
More workers More machines More money More factories Raw materials More customers
European strengths: Maxim gun Advanced technology Railroads and steamships
Other countries’ vulnerability: Variety of cultures and languages Weak central governments Lower levels of technology Internal conflicts within countries.
With your table group: What is imperialism, and how does this political cartoon represent it?
Colony A territory governed internally by a foreign power Somaliland in East Africa (below) Also – the colonies in what eventually became the U.S.
Protectorate A territory with its own government that is under the control of an outside power
Sphere of influence Outside power claims exclusive investment or trading privileges
Economic imperialism Less-developed country controlled by private business interests rather than another government
Partner Question 1. What would be the pros and cons of each of these systems, to the people who lived there? Colony Protectorate Sphere of influence Economic imperialism PROCON
Methods of “Management” 1 - Indirect control (preferred by Britain) Existing political rulers had to accept the authority of the European country Country mostly handled its own affairs
Methods of “Management” 2 - Direct control (preferred by France, much of Europe) Colonies governed according to their needs, but not giving them rights Assimilation – institutions patterned after those of the controlling country
Around the room are 20 documents that describe various motivations for imperialism. Your job: View the different documents and decide whether the motivation described is political, economic, religious, exploratory, or ideological. Indicate this and write a sentence or two using evidence to support your claim on the worksheet ▪ Your sentences supporting your claim should also mention what the document or specific motivation is.