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Objectives  Distinguish between anatomy and physiology  Describe the location of the major body cavities  List the organs located in each of the body.

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Presentation on theme: "Objectives  Distinguish between anatomy and physiology  Describe the location of the major body cavities  List the organs located in each of the body."— Presentation transcript:


2 Objectives  Distinguish between anatomy and physiology  Describe the location of the major body cavities  List the organs located in each of the body cavities  Name the major systems of the body  List the organs associated with each system  Describe the general functions of each system  Properly use the terms that describe relative positions, body sections, and body regions  Demonstrate the directional and regional terms  Name and describe the structural levels of living things  State the meanings of the prefixes, suffixes, and root words of this unit

3 Anatomy and Physiology  Anatomy  Study of the structure and shape of the body and it’s parts in relationship to one another - gross: general body structures that can be seen with the naked eye - microscopic:cannot be seen with the naked eye - cytology: study of cells - histology: study of tissues  Physiology  Study of how the body and it’s parts function  the physiology, or function, of a particular body part is dependent upon its structure. Often the topics of anatomy and physiology are difficult to separate and are taught together.

4 Gross Body Regions  Head (cephalic) and neck (cervical)  Extremities - arms - legs  Trunk (body minus the head, neck and extremities) - chest (thoracic) - abdomen (celiac) - back

5 Levels of Structural Organization  Atom: building blocks of matter  Molecules: group of atoms joined together  Cells:the basic unit of life  Tissues: groups of similar cells working together - epithelial tissue, nervous tissue, connective tissue, muscle tissue  Organs: groups of similar tissues working together  Organ Systems: organs working together to perform a specific body function  Organism: living body


7 Body Systems  Integumentary: protects internal body structures against injury and foreign substances; prevents fluid loss; important in temperature regulation  Skeletal:supports and protects soft tissues and organs; provides framework; attachments for muscles; produces blood cells  Muscular:moves body and its parts; maintenance of posture; production of body heat  Nervous:controls and integrates body activities; responsible for "higher functions" such as thought and reasoning  Endocrine:regulates body metabolism

8 Body Systems Cont.  Cardiovascular:transports materials between different cells and tissues  Immune:protects the body against infection and invasion  Respiratory:provides for the intake and output of air, as well as the exchange of gases  Digestive:supplies body with substance (food) from which energy is derived; transports wastes from the body  Urinary:filters wastes from the blood; helps maintain water and electrolyte balance  Reproductive:produces gametes; continues the species

9 Anatomical Terminology Why?  Correct anatomical terminology allows people to communicate effectively and accurately  Body Positions - Anatomical Position:body erect, feet on floor and slightly apart, head and palms facing forward - Supine: body lying face upward - Prone: body lying face downward

10 Anatomical Terminology Cont.  Directional Terms -anterior (ventral)--the front side of the body -posterior (dorsal)--the back side of the body -superior (cranial)--toward the head -inferior (caudal)--away from the head -medial--toward the midline of the body -lateral--away from the midline of the body -proximal--closer to the point of attachment -distal--farther from the point of attachment -superficial (external)--located close to or on the body surface -deep (internal)--located beneath the body surface

11 Regional Terms  Anterior  Abdominal: anterior body trunk inferior to ribs  Acromial: point of shoulder  Antebrachial: forearm  Antecubital: anterior surface of elbow  Axillary: armpit  Brachial: arm  Buccal: cheek area  Carpal: wrist  Cervical: neck region  Coxal: hip  Crural: leg  Deltoid: curve of shoulder area formed by large deltoid muscle

12 Regional Terms Cont.  Digital: fingers, toes  Femoral: thigh  Fibular: lateral part of leg  Frontal: forehead  Inguinal: area where thigh meets body trunk; groin  Nasal: nose area  Oral: mouth  Orbital: eye area  Patellar: anterior knee  Pelvic: area overlying the pelvis  Pubic: genital region  Sternal: breastbone area  Tarsal: ankle region  Thoracic: chest  Umbilical: navel

13 Regional Terms Cont.  Posterior  Calcaneal: heel of foot  Cephalic: head  Femoral: thigh  Gluteal: buttock  Lumbar: area of back between ribs and hips  Occipital: posterior surface of head  Olecranal: posterior surface of elbow  Popliteal: posterior knee area  Sacral: area between hips  Scapular: shoulder blade region  Sural: the posterior surface of lower leg; the calf  Vertebral: area of spine  Plantar: sole of the foot

14 Body Planes and Sections  Sagittal:longitudinal section that divides the body into right and left portions - median or midsagittal:directly down the middle of the body - parasagittal:divides anywhere except for right down the middle; divides the body into unequal parts  Frontal (coronal):divides the body into anterior and posterior portions  Transverse:divides the body into superior (top) and inferior (bottom) portions


16 Sagittal MRI Scans

17 Transverse MRI Scans Cont.

18 Coronal MRI Scans

19 Body Cavities  Dorsal (posterior) - cranial cavity--houses the brain - spinal (vertebral) cavity--contains the spinal cord  Ventral (anterior) - thoracic cavity - pericardial cavity-surrounds the heart - pleural cavities--surrounds the lungs - abdominopelvic - abdominal cavity--contains the stomach, spleen, liver, gall bladder, pancreas, and the small and large intestine - pelvic cavity--contains the lower part of the digestive system (rectum), the urinary bladder, and the internal reproductive organs of the female


21 Body Cavities Cont.  Abdominopelvic Cavity -four quadrants - right upper quadrant (RUQ) - right lower quadrant(RLQ) - left upper quadrant(LUQ) - left lower quadrant(LLQ) -Nine regions epigastric--upper middle portion umbilical--central portion hypogastric--lower middle portion hypochondriac--either side of epigastric lumbar--either side of umbilical iliac--either side of hypogastric

22 Body Cavities Cont.  Oral: commonly called the mouth, contains teeth and tongue  Nasal: posterior to the nose, part of the respiratory system passageways  Orbital: house the eyes  Middle Ear: medial to the eardrums

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