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Key Terms – The Constitutional Convention

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1 Key Terms – The Constitutional Convention
Articles of Confederation Federalists Anti-Federalists Thomas Jefferson Alexander Hamilton Northwest Ordinance Shay's Rebellion Constitutional Convention The Virginia Plan Great Compromise 3/5 Compromise The Bill of Rights

2 Articles of Confederation
Articles of Confederation → first constitution established by the United States of America Were highly flawed States were given too much power: Could levy taxes Could enter into wars Could print their own currency No executive or judiciary branches

3 Complaints about the Articles
The Articles of Confederation were a divisive issue in the newly formed country. Some people argued that there needed to be more government intervention in economic and political affairs. These people were known as Federalists. Others argued that there needed to be less intervention by the government and political affairs. These people were known as Anti- Federalists.

4 Thomas Jefferson Thomas Jefferson → Anti-Federalist who helped construct the constitution but initially felt that the way it was drawn up favored the government too much. Jefferson would oppose national banks, weakening Congress, and limiting the powers of the President.

5 Alexander Hamilton Hamilton → Federalist who also helped construct the constitution and supported the final version of the Constitution. Would argue that states should not have too much power, national banks should be created, there should be separation of powers and that a Bill of Rights would be prohibitive.

6 The Northwest Ordinance (1787)
Northwest Ordinance → established provisions to admit western lands into the Union. It stated that slavery would be banned north of the Ohio River.

7 Shay's Rebellion Farmers were beginning to lose their land to foreclosure due to the poor economic conditions after the Revolutionary War. Daniel Shays would organize the farmers and attempt to forcibly close courts to prevent foreclosure proceedings. Lack of U.S. military forced Mass. To fend for themselves. Was a clear indicator for a need for a strong central government

8 The Constitutional Convention (1787)
States would convene to construct a new constitution that would correct the flaws of the Articles of Confederation. Federalists and Anti- Federalists would work in conjunction to establish a constitution that favored both sides.

9 The Virginia Plan Virginia Plan → established the separation of powers in the U.S.. Constructed mostly by James Madison. Stated: There would be three branches of government: Executive → president, can propose laws, veto, act as commander in chief Legislative → composed of Congress, power to levy taxes, pay debts, regulate foreign commerce Judiciary → Supreme Court, can interpret laws and pass judgment based on those interpretations.

10 Great Compromise Federalists wanted Congressional representation to be based on population while Anti-Federalists sought equal representation. The Great Compromise (or Connecticut Compromise) would be drawn up as a result. It stated: One house would be represented by population (house of representatives) One house would be represented equally (2 votes), the Senate.

11 3/5 Compromise Some states argued that if there were to be a house based on population, their slaves should count towards the population. Northern states argued that if slaves were considered property, then they could not be counted towards population. They insisted that if slaves were to count towards population, the owners would need to be taxed for them as well. 3/5 Compromise stated: Three fifths of all slaves shall be counted towards population and taxation.

12 The Bill of Rights Bill of Rights → outlines the major freedoms and rights protected by government. Were composed of the first 10 amendments of the American Constitution. Guaranteed specific freedoms such as freedom of speech and religion.

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