Presentation on theme: "Working in Groups Decision-making processes. Why work in a group? Working in groups is a vital part of every job Groups are more productive than individuals."— Presentation transcript:
Why work in a group? Working in groups is a vital part of every job Groups are more productive than individuals Effective groups are more accurate Groups develop more enthusiasm
Group vs. Individual Performance Group superior to individuals Task requires brad range of talents and knowledge Complicated task (requires division & coordination) Time available for deliberation Members are motivated to succeed High standards of performance Individuals superior to group Task requires limited knowledge Simple task (can be done by one person) Little time available Members don’t care too much about job Performance of groups is low
Characteristics of groups Size? –Two people are not a group –More than 20 people defeats the purpose –10-person teams produce better results than groups of hundred –Optimal group size 5-7 Interaction –Collection of people doesn’t equal group –Without interaction, no group work
Characteristics of groups Shared purpose –Interaction alone doesn’t equal working group –A collective goal is needed to accomplish anything collaboratively Interdependence –Group members don’t just interact; they depend on one another Telemarketers vs. Restaurant workers
Characteristics of groups Regular interaction –A group that interacts over a period of time develops appropriate behavior patterns: shared standards Punctuality Expectations of quality of work
What makes a group a team? Team spirit Cooperation Hard work
8 shared characteristics of a successful team Clear & inspiring shared goals –Successful teams know why the team exists and believe the purpose is important and worthwhile. Result-driven structure –Successful teams organize themselves in a manner that ensures effective accomplishment of goals Competent team members –Successful teams have necessary skills to get the job done
8 shared characteristics of a successful team Unified commitment –Successful team members are committed to each other. –Groups’ goals are above their personal interests. Collaborative climate –Successful teams trust and support each other. Standards of excellence –Doing outstanding work is the norm in successful teams. –Each member is expected to do his/her best
8 shared characteristics of a successful team External support & recognition –Successful teams need an audience that shows appreciation for their dedication Principled leadership –Successful teams usually have leaders who can create a vision –Leaders can identify talents of members
Types of groups and teams Face-to-Face teams –Most teams work together in person –Face-to-Face communication provides rich feedback –Preferred mode by most people –Challenges exist Timing Lost time through socializing
Types of groups and teams Virtual teams –No boundaries of location & time –Technology-driven networks: computer network –E-mail is basic tool –For discussion chat rooms and video conferencing are used
Approaches to working in groups Centralized leadership –Difference between an effective and ineffective leader can be dramatic
Leadership styles Authoritarian –provide clear expectations for what needs to be done, when it should be done, and how it should be done. –clear division between the leader and the followers. –Authoritarian leaders make decisions independently with little or no input from rest of the group. –best applied to situations where there is little time for group decision-making or where the leader is the most knowledgeable member of the group.
Leadership styles Democratic –leaders offer guidance to group members, but they also participate in the group and allow input from other group members –encourage group members to participate, but retain the final say over decision-making process –Group members feel engaged in the process and are more motivated and creative. –generally the most effective leadership style
Leadership styles Laissez-faire –leaders offer little or no guidance to group members and leave decision-making up to group members –can be effective in situations where group members are highly qualified in an area of expertise –often leads to poorly defined roles and a lack of motivation.
Approaches to working in groups Self-directed work teams –Groups are responsible for managing their own behavior –Shared leadership makes middle management redundant When to use self-directed work teams –Work best for complex jobs that require variety of perspectives New product development
Characteristics of self-directed work teams Technical of functional expertise –Members need specific knowledge to succeed Problem-solving & decision-making skills –Knowing how to solve problems and making autonomous decisions is vital Interpersonal skills –Knowing how to respect each other can determine success or failure of self-directed team
Functional roles of group members Task function –Information giver –Information seeker –Opinion giver –Opinion seeker –Starter (initiates tasks) –Direction giver –Summarizer –Diagnoser Relational Functions –Participation encourager –Harmonizer –Tension reliever –Praise giver –Emphatic listener Dysfunctional Roles –Blocker –Attacker –Joker –Recognition seeker
Systematic problem solving within a group Define the problem –Not understanding the problem leads to no solution Analyze the problem –Try to discover the causes Establish criteria for a solution –Identify characteristics of a good solution Consider possible solutions to the problem –Creative thinking needed to brainstorm possibilities
Systematic problem solving within a group Decide on a solution –Once all possibilities are brainstormed, the best has to be chosen Implement the solution –Inventing a solution is not enough –Tasks that need to be completed must be identified –Resources must be identified Follow up on the solution –Check up on effectiveness
Decision-making methods Consensus –Collective group decision that all members support –Sometimes time costly Majority vote –Support of most members needed –Time efficient but can lead to resentment Minority decision –A few members make decisions affecting the whole group –Requires confidence of the larger group Expert opinion –Single person with specialized knowledge makes the decisions Authority rule –Designated leader makes all final decisions
Questions Do you prefer working alone or in a group? Why? What is more important for you: working with people you socialize with, or people who have the necessary skills? Does your term project group have a leader or are decisions made with consensus of all group members? Which leadership style is best? Authoritarian, democratic, or laissez-faire?