Presentation on theme: "Human Development LI:- to understand the influence of genetics and environment on human development."— Presentation transcript:
Human Development LI:- to understand the influence of genetics and environment on human development
Human Development - Behaviour Pro-social behaviour Cooperation Working together Helping and caring behaviours In children this includes sharing, taking turns, responding to the needs of others Anti-social Behaviour Difficulty in getting on with others Aggressive & disruptive In children this includes hitting, bullying, teasing, verbal abuse. hostile non-cooperative
Human Development – Gender What differences are there between girls and boys behaviour? What makes boys and girls behave differently? What stereotypes are there of Female/male behaviour & appearance?
Gender Differences More risk taking More aggressive More physical Rough & tumble play Better mathematical Skills & spatial ability (map reading!) Higher verbal ability Higher spelling conversational ability. Less Physical ‘Caring’ less aggressive.
Gender differences Clear Biological differences Occupational choice differs Playtime differs in children To what extent do media stereotypes affect the development of gender? To what extent do parenting styles affect the development of gender?
Human Development - Personality A unique set of characteristics Relatively stable over time What factors affect how our personality is shaped?
Genotype The genetic pattern an individual inherits. Every human has 23 pairs of chromosomes, half inherited from the mother and half from the Father. These combine to form a UNIQUE gene pattern known as your GENOTYPE.
Genes alone do not predict development…. Mental illness & Environment Cognitive Development & Deprivation Obesity & Envirnoment
PHENOTYPE The outcome of the interaction between GENES and the ENVIRONMENT Experienced is known as our PHENOTYPE
Genetic patterned behaviour – behaviours we are born with.
Genetic patterned behaviour….. Attachment in humans, Imprinting in animals – both behaviours promote survival
Konrad Lorenz (1952) Demonstrated that animal’s don’t hatch with an image of their parents. He took a clutch of gosling eggs and divided them into 2 groups. Group1 stayed with their mother. Group 2 were placed in a incubator, and the first moving thing they say was Lorenz. The followed him around as if he was their mother. They had imprinted on him. He tested this idea by using various objects including a rubber glove. Imprinting is important for survival as the parents offers protection and food for the infant initially.
How does this apply to humans? Humans do not imprint… we become attached. “ Attachment is an emotional bond between two people. It is a two way process and endures over time. It leads to certain behaviours such as clinging and proximity-seeking, and serves the function of protecting an infant”
MATURATION – a timetable of development built into a person’s genotype Walking Language Puberty These are all UNIVERSAL and happen at roughly the same time. Variation in timings may be due to environmental influences e.g. nutrition.
Human Development - Language Non verbal stage (babbling) Single word stage 2/3 word sentences Using grammar (adding ‘s’ for plural) More complex speech Ability to read and write
Environmental Factors What environmental factors affect development?
Environmental Factors Income Housing Nutrition Education Access to health facilities TASK: Using the text book/internet resources, put together a presentation/report/leaflet, describing the environmental affect the above factors have on human development.
Environmental Factors Parenting Styles Play Opportunities
Parent Influence Behaviour Attachment Gender roles Language
Parenting Styles (Sears 1957 p.34) Sears aimed to investigate if there was a relationship between parenting style and aggressive behaviour in children. YOUR TASK: Write a report with the title ‘Parenting Styles’, address each of the following areas in your report: 1.What 3 styles were identified, describe each of them. 2.What were their findings for each style? 3.What limitations were there in this research? 4.Summarise the follow up study by Baumrind.
PERMISSIVE STYLE Little guidanceEmotionally warm Does not apply rules or allows the child to do what he/she wantsInconsistent
Parenting styles – ‘Things to consider’ worksheet.
Factors affecting Human Development Summary Access to Health ServicesGenetics EducationSense of ‘self’ IncomeInteraction with others Nutrition (pre & post- natal)Parenting Styles Housing
Summary Because someone is born into a low income environment, does NOT mean they will grow up to be poor & disadvantaged. It is important to understand that a person’s sense of ‘SELF’ influences their development and the CHOICES they make gives them more CONTROL over their environment. A person’s ability is strongly influenced by their GENOTYPE and the ENVIRONMENT.