REMINDER! Cold War= 1945 to 1989 United States VS Soviet Union War against COMMUNISM
John F. Kennedy Son of wealthy Boston businessman Attended Harvard Served in the navy during WWII Elected to Congress in 1946
JFK becomes President in 1960 Defeats Nixon Televised debates make the difference
Candidates agreed to 4 televised debates Nixon in hospital before so he appears pale and exhausted Many who listened on radio thought Nixon won debates but most watched on TV… Kennedy was elected with a lead of 112,827 votes, or 0.1% of the popular vote, giving him a victory of 303 to 219
JFK steps into tough times Sputnik I and Montgomery bus boycott The Soviets were advancing and Brown v. Board of Education still had a long way to go- segregation was still taking place.
Kennedy launches new Cold War strategies 1) Build up the nation’s armed forces 2) More money to Army Special Forces i.e. Green Barets 3) Help developing countries through the Peace Corps (also known as “Third World Countries”) “Third World”= developing nations in Africa, Asia, and Latin America
Kennedy Confronts Communism in Cuba Fidel Castro takes over in 1959 WHY / HOW? U.S. tries to play nice but Castro is a radical leader and takes aid from Soviets.
BAY OF PIGS Before leaving office, Eisenhower cuts off ties with Cuba and plans a CIA-led invasion to overthrow Castro. 638 Ways to Kill Castro Kennedy decides to follow through with the plan and a CIA-led force of Cuban exiles attacked in the Bay of Pigs invasion. *This was done less than three months after Kennedy became President!
Poor planning! 1) poorly equipped forces 2) no protective cover 3) the invasion FAILS *All but 300 of the 1,400 invaders were killed or captured The Bay of Pigs invasion turned many Cuban Americans against Kennedy.
Cuban Missile Crisis Who is Nikita Khrushchev? leader of the Soviet Union following the death of Stalin
What took place? U.S. intelligence discovers Soviets building nuclear missile sites in Cuba 6 tense days where nuclear war was a real threat Results: Soviets remove missiles from Cuba b/c the U.S. promised to do the same in Italy and Turkey The U.S., GB, and SU all sign the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (bans above ground testing).