Presentation on theme: "Energy and Mineral Resources"— Presentation transcript:
1 Energy and Mineral Resources Chapter 4, Section 1
2 Renewable and Nonrenewable Resources A renewable resource can be replenished over fairly short time spans such as months, years, or decadesCommon examples are plants and animals for food, natural fibers for clothing, and trees for lumber and paperEnergy from flowing water, wind, and the sun are also renewable resourcesA nonrenewable resource takes millions of years to form and accumulateWhen the present supply of nonrenewable resources run out, there won’t be any moreCommon examples are coal, oil, natural gas, iron, copper, uranium, and gold
3 Concept CheckWhat is the difference between a renewable and a non-renewable resource?Renewable are replenished within years, while non-renewable take millions of years to accumulate.
4 Fossil FuelsFossil Fuel – general term for any hydrocarbon that may be used for fuelFossil fuels include coal, oil, and natural gasCoal forms when heat and pressure transform plant material over millions of yearsPower plants primarily use coal to generate electricity (using 70% of the coal mined)Burning coal—much of which is high in sulfur—creates air pollution problemsPetroleum (oil) and natural gas form from the remains of plants and animals that were buried in ancient seasOver millions of years and continual sediment build up, chemical reactions slowly transform some of the organic remains into the liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons we call petroleum and natural gas
7 Concept Check What two features must an oil trap have? Permeable reservoir rock to allow oil and gas to collect and a cap rock that keeps oil and gas from escaping.
8 Tar Sands and Oil ShaleSome energy experts believe that fuels derived from tar sands and oil shales could become good substitutes for dwindling petroleum suppliesTar sands are usually mixtures of clay and sand combined with water and varying amounts of a black, thick tar called bitumenThe oil in tar sands is much more resistant to flow and cannot be pumped out easilyOil shale is a rock that contains a waxy mixture of hydrocarbons called kerogenOil shale can be mined and heated to vaporize the kerogenThe kerogen vapor is processed to remove impurities, and then refined
10 Formation of Mineral Deposits Ore – a material from which a useful mineral or minerals can be mined at a profitGeologists have established that the occurrences of valuable mineral resources are closely related to Earth’s rock cycleSome of the most important mineral deposits form through igneous processes and from hydrothermal solutionsIgneous processes produce important deposits of metallic minerals (gold, silver, copper, mercury, lead, platinum, and nickel)Most hydrothermal deposits form from hot, metal-rich fluids that are left during the late stages of movement and cooling of magmaPlacer deposits are formed when eroded heavy minerals settle quickly from moving water while less dense particles remain suspended and continue to move
13 Concept Check What are mineral resources? Earth materials that are extracted and processed for either the metals or the elements they contain.
14 Nonmetallic Mineral Resources Nonmetallic mineral resources are extracted and processed either for the nonmetallic elements they contain or for their physical and chemical propertiesNonmetallic mineral resources are divided into two broad groups—building materials and industrial materialsNatural aggregate (crushed stone, sand, and gravel), is an important material used in nearly all building constructionSome substances, like limestone, have many uses in both construction and industry (cement, steel, neutralizing acidic soils…)Most industrial minerals are not nearly as abundant as building materials, requiring considerable processing to extract the desired substance at the proper degree of purity