4 Two Major CategoriesNon - Vascular PlantsVascular Plants
5 Non – Vascular Plants Smaller Plants No tube systems for transporting materialsLive close to water to absorb nutrients by diffusionNO roots, stems, or leaves!!!EX: Mosses, LiverwortsWhere do you think these are in terms of evolution?
6 Vascular PlantsHave tube-like cells to transport water, food, & minerals (similar to our veins!)Usually LargerCan live farther from water b/c they don’t rely on diffusionPhloem – tubes that move the food (sugar) DOWN from the food producing leavesXylem – tubes that move water & minerals UP from the soilTwo Types – Angiosperms & Gymnosperms
8 Adaptations for life on land Seed = embryo and food supply protected by a covering- prevents drying out, and helps seed dispersionWaxy Cuticle – prevents water loss (transpiration)Source:Source:
9 Adaptations continued… Spores – reproductive cell or gamete protected by a coveringStomata – pores in leaves that open and close for gas exchange (respiration!)RootsStemsLeaves – help absorb light for photosynthesis. (food energy!!) BIGGER = more photosynthesisSource:
10 Stomata Gas Exchange – Oxygen and water out, Carbon Dioxide in Controlled by guard cells
11 Adaptations continued… Source:Roots- Anchor Plant- Absorb water and minerals- Store starch and become foodStems- Transport materials- Support- Vascular System
12 Adaptations Cont… Leaves Flat, thin organ for photosynthesisHigh surface area
14 Gymnosperms Usually Conifers (Evergreen or Pine Trees) Make pine cones as the naked seeds for reproductionWind Pollinated from male cone pollen to female coneFertilized gamete (zygote) develops into an an embryo and is dropped to the ground
15 Angiosperms – Flowering Plants Pollen produced in antherWhere eggs are produced
16 Stamen (male) Anther – makes pollen grains. When the grains are fully grown, the anther splits open to drop the pollen
18 PollinationFlowering plants use wind, insects, bats, birds, and mammals to transfer pollen from the male (stamen) part of the flower to the female (stigma) part of the flowerPollen is plant SPERM flying through the air!
19 PollinationWhen the insect visits another flower of the same type, the pollen will stick to the stigma.This is called pollination.
20 Co-evolution of bees & flowers Mutual evolutionary influence Flowering Plants – AngiospermsNeed pollinationBeesUse pollen and nectar as a food source
21 FertilizationThe pollen travels to the ovary, where it joins with an ovule.This is called fertilization.